Health Policy

The goal of dental health is to reduce the number of people with untreated dental problems.
Justification for prioritizing the dental health goal
Starting the treatment process aids in regaining functionalities, but it also assists both children and adults in returning to normal activities such as working and playing, as well as other social, political, and economic aspects of life. Therapeutic procedures provide relief from debilitating toothaches, thus improving quality of life.
Tooth loss, mediastinitis, and bacterial blood infection are all complications that can be avoided with treatment. The health goal helps prevent unheard-of outcomes such as emergency room visits, unsustainable financial burdens, and the need for hospitalization.
The treatment enhances holistic functioning by promoting psychosocial functioning and reducing spill over consequences such as sleeplessness and inability to chew food

Question 2

The mental health goal is helping patients lead a productive life

The three objectives include

Providing support services during crisis

Continuously revising care practices to promote effectiveness of services

Empowering patients through self-care skills such as means of establishing positive relationships

The three impact measures include

The provision of support services improves access to mental care, an aspect that prevents the crisis from escalating to self-harming behaviour, anxiety attacks, psychotic episodes, or suicidal ideation.

The continuous revision and alignment of care with most recent scientific knowledge improve the quality and efficaciousness of interventions

Self-care competencies promote recovery and prevent future crises

Four Outcome Measures of the Dental Health Goal

Reducing the proportion of people with untreated dental diseases offer patients relief from the deliberating experience of toothaches. While a number of developments can symptomize dental concerns, pain is one of the most discomforting manifestations that diminish the quality of life.

Another positive outcome in the management of dental diseases is breaking from the progressive nature of the conditions among children and adults.

Arresting conditions such as dental decay will also help in preventing the irreversible outcome such as infections, gum bleeding, as well as tooth loss.

Treatment will also ensure that both adults and children function, sleep, and eat well. The outcome is founded on the far-reaching implications of untreated dental diseases on social developmental aspects such as self-esteem, as the conditions have a significant tool on physical looks.

Six Strategies to Address the Rising Care Cost in Australia

Cost-sharing models as an alternative source of the fund in emergency and urgent care. User charges promote Pareto optimality, an aspect that is informed by the economic arguments that free service at the point of consumption results in overutilization

Service rationing of non-emergency services to promote sustainability and efficiency in social services

Compulsory social insurance to increase the health kitty, with an exemption mechanism to cushion high-risk social groups such as homeless individuals and immigrants

Increase preventive efforts through establishing primary care complexes that offer integrated service delivery, with the aim being to reduce demand for the expensive curative care

Community-level care to reduce the demand for emergency and urgent care as the case of Guardia Medica in Italy

Localize resource mobilization to promote frugal spending as the case of Spanish health care system

Home Address Postcode and LGA

My home address post-code is 2017 Zetland, and LGA is the City of Sydney.

Extrapolation entails estimates that are made based on an existing trend


According to the 2016 census report, the number of people below the age of five years in Zetland was 497. Based on the 2013 report by the National Diabetes Register, the number of children aged 0-14 who were living with type 1 diabetes in 2013 is 6,091. Based on the epidemiological revelation, one minor in a group of 720 Australian children is diabetic. The prevalence rates can be adopted to estimate cases in my locality, where there is a probability of one child in the suburb having type 1 diabetes.

Description of Three Essential Components of A need Analysis

The essential components in need analysis include problem modelling, quantification, as well as synthesis.

Problem modelling is a need identification section that entails describing the subset of the population as well as their needs. Identification of the target population involves defining the geographic dispersion and demographic characteristic. For instance, reproductive health needs of women in Torres Strait Island. Need identification is based on normative, felt, expressed, or comparative aspects. For example, a felt need can be the inference that immigrant women face a myriad of problems such as sexual violence and inaccessibility of services

Quantification is an execution component, where measurements highlighted in the problem modelling are transformed to values and interests of decision makers. An example of value is improving the social standing of single mothers through financial support, while an interest may be a population-based aspect such as reduction of cervical cancer mortality through HPV expandable immunization.

Synthesis is a concept multiattribute utility analysis that entails understanding the relative standing after implementation of projects. For instance, reduction of rates of pregnancy after expanding reproductive services to teenage girls or low prevalence of domestic violence among employed women.

Importance of Involving Consumers in Health Planning

Consumers have a significant role in health planning, where they provide anecdotal evidence that improves targeting of initiatives. The direct inputs and representative engagement complement expert knowledge, as the views are based on population preferences. They are valuable players in the decision-making process, a focal role that ensures social services are responsive to the needs of the public. Involving consumers also help in aligning the plans with community values, where they influence the content and language of education materials and information. They are true partners in promoting ownership and sustainability, as their role helps in making health products more engaging and relevant to the target audience. The Consumers Health Forum of Australia best exemplifies the criticality of engaging users, where the group has benefited the health planning and policymaking process at all levels. The contribution of the representatives has provided the basics of turning the health industry into a high-performance sector by proposing best approaches to achieving quality and safety, promoting responsiveness, as well as accessibility.

Four Limitations of the Australian Health Care System and Addressing the Shortfalls

Australia's health system is a Beveridge model, where the entitlement to service is based on residence and citizenship. The model is discriminatory as it overlooks the fact that Australia is a country of great global appeal. The solution would be making the benefits package explicit, where costing should consider single events in payment over production value.

Tax funding is also a significant concern, as the source of funding is highly unreliable. One approach would be constraining the role of government in financing through cost-sharing models.

The market-based model is also a disadvantaging feature of the Australia health system, as the interplay of supply and demand can culminate to inequities, medical cost related impoverishment, and exclusion of low-income earners. The government should leverage access and affordability through exemption, subsidies, and pricing caps.

Another challenge is health disparities. While the country ranks high on the globe, it is confronted with disproportionate health needs, where preventable health issues despairingly affect males and the First Nations. A solution would be political commitment and financial investment to address the inequities.

Roles of State and Commonwealth Government in Health

Health is a shared responsibility in Australia, where the federal and state/territory governments play an active role in funding the system, making laws, registration and accreditation of professionals, health reforms, as well as response to emergencies. Nevertheless, roles are continuously negotiated. Currently, the Commonwealth government is tasked with resource mobilization and providing broad health policies on a number of issues. The execution of the tasks is evident in a number of responsibilities such as running the Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, and national immunisation program. The federal government is also the overseer in action plans touching on specific subsets of the population such as aged care services and veterans' health care. It also supports funding for research and training through grants as well as subsidizing specialty services such as hearing and dental services. On their part, the state and territorial governments are the immediate players in the delivery of services and management of hospitals. They also recruit and compensate caregivers and providers based on their human resource policies and work demand.

Key Stakeholders in the Development of Non-Smoking Policy, their Agendas, and Influence to the Development of the Policy

The government is the primary player in adopting restrictions against smoking, where state actors such treasury, the department of health, institutions, and public health agencies helps in formulating and enforcing regulations. The government also coordinates cooperation with other interested parties such as the WHO, NGOs, and community groups.

Insurers and health planners also have a critical role in non-smoking policy, where covering cessation treatment makes services accessible. Supporting efforts to quit also encourages clinicians and smokers to comply with guidelines.

Employers are also valuable players in the non-smoking course of actions, as they are on the receiving end of direct deleterious outcomes such as on-the-job loss of productivity and absenteeism. Their role in insurance payments promotes cost-consciousness of the policy.

Health care providers are also the gold-standard of an effective non-smoking policy, where they provide the 5 As through asking about tobacco use, advising smokers, assessing cessation readiness, assisting patients, and arranging follow-up sessions.

Smokers are also players in the policy, as they are directly affected by any proposal. With smoking cessation being an unpleasant experience, efforts by individuals is the most important thing.

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