Government Surveillance: Bibliography

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Surveillance refers to the government’s efforts to collect information about its citizens without their knowledge or access to private areas. Communication, physical, and transaction monitoring are all types of surveillance that are currently in use. In the United States, the concept of government surveillance dates back to the period of the First World War, which was marked by censorship and wartime monitoring of international communications. Nonetheless, the current practice of government surveillance employs advanced technology, raising concerns among those who are affected. The paper provides an annotated list of books and research articles that have looked into government surveillance issues, as well as a summary of their importance. McVeigh, Karen. NSA surveillance program violates the constitution, ACLU says. 2013. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/27/nsa-surveillance-program-illegal-aclu-lawsuit
McVeigh Karen of the guardian outlines how the surveillance program of the NSA continues to violate the constitution (McVeigh par. 1). The author incorporates the findings and the court motion of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) on the issues of government surveillance that entails collection and tracking of phone call data of the Citizens. The court motion of the union filed in 2013 shows that government surveillance allows an essentially indefinite inspection to run across the United States and as such oversteps its bounds leading to a chilling effect of the program (McVeigh par. 3). The article is fundamental to the analysis of the constitutional violation of government surveillance based on the court motion that the union filed. It helps draws the legal aspect of the topic in the paper discussion.
Slobogin, Christopher. Privacy at Risk: The New Government Surveillance and the Fourth Amendment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Internet resource.
The work of Slobogin Christopher entails the insidious assault on the freedom of the people of America due to the continuously growing practice of government surveillance through monitoring of their actions, communications, and transactions (Slobogin 4). The author incorporates electronic surveillance that involves wiretapping and bugging as well as the current sophisticated methods of surveillance that the government currently employs. The book is relevant and essential to the paper as it facilitates the understanding of different types of government surveillance and their aspects. Accordingly, the types of surveillance include communication, physical and transaction (Slobogin 3). The study also aids in appreciating the meaning of the term surveillance and as such sets the scope of its use in the paper while also outlining its impact.
Krueger, Brian S. “Government surveillance and political participation on the Internet.” Social science computer review 23.4 (2005): 439-452.
Krueger outlines the relationship between government surveillance and online political participation of individuals (Krueger 439). The argument of the author in the article shows that the government-increased efforts in surveillance and the growing need for the internet for political participation characterize a series of concerns by the public. The article develops reasonable hypothesis relating to the connection between government surveillance and online political participation (Krueger 440). It utilizes a sample survey of internet users in the U.S. to test the hypothesis and concludes that government surveillance affects online activities. The article is fundamental to the paper as it goes beyond the conventional approach to the effect of government surveillance to include an online aspect of the modern world.
Altheide, David L. “The Triumph of Fear: Connecting the Dots about Whistleblowers and Surveillance.” International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IJCWT) 4.1 (2014): 1-7.
The article outlines the castigation of Edward Snowden as an impact of government surveillance on individuals. The media and government officials criticized Mr. Snowden as a criminal, spy, and traitor when he released information on how the government through NSA monitors the activities and electronic communications of Americans without their knowledge (Altheide 2). The castigation of the whistleblower results into intimidation of other individuals who would wish to come out and air specific pertinent issues in public. The fear is that the government is always watching. The article gives more authenticity to the subject of fear as one of the negative impacts of government surveillance discussed in the paper.
Etzioni, Amitai. How patriotic is the Patriot Act?: freedom versus security in the age of terrorism. Routledge, 2005.
The study looks into the issues surrounding the Patriot Act and the concerns of national security vis-à-vis the freedom of individuals enshrined in the Fourth Amendment of the constitution (Etzioni 18). The central thesis of the author is the recognition of the point of action on issues of national security and safeguarding the rights of Americans. There were many concerns after 9/11, and as such, the government’s argument of maintaining national security through surveillance may be justified (Etzioni 21). On the other hand, the concerns of the groups fostering the protection of human liberties should also be looked into. While analyzing the question about, “how patriotic is the Patriot Act?” the author argues that, the Patriots are those who appreciate the need to protect the country from attacks as well as the constitution from violations. The article helps in striking a balance between the Fourth Amendment and the national security concerns.
Joh, Elizabeth E. “Privacy protests: Surveillance evasion and fourth amendment suspicion.” (2013).
The article shows how government surveillance violates the provisions of the Fourth Amendment. According to the law enforcement officers, individuals who evade surveillance as criminal elements in the society that should be fished out (Joh 7). Therefore, individuals have devised a series of techniques to protest the surveillance of the government. As such, they use freedom phones that do not have tracking devices, use Tor to browse the internet, identify government tracking devices through GPS detectors, burn their garbage and use prepaid debit cards or cash. These actions occur due to the fear of the government labeling them as criminals. The article aids in understanding the significance of such acts of resistance and its relation to the freedoms of individuals.
Kerr, Orin S. “The Fourth Amendment and the Global Internet.” Stan. L. Rev. 67 (2015): 285.
Kerr Orin also looks into the issue of government surveillance, the internet, and the Fourth Amendment. As such, the author’s article outlines how the provisions of the amendment should adapt to the worldwide nature of internet surveillance. He integrates the decision of the Supreme Court in the United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez on the issues of global internet surveillance and the Fourth Amendment (Kerr 285). The article explores the concerns of such surveillance and the need to have equilibrium adjustments between human rights and the national security. The article is essential in drawing the connection between court cases about government surveillance vis-à-vis the regulations that protect individuals’ rights and how the cases were determined (Kerr 285).
Marthews, Alex, and Catherine E. Tucker. “Government surveillance and internet search behavior.” (2015).
The article presents data from the United States and other 40 trading partners on search volume of particular keywords before and after the surveillance revelations of 2013. The study aimed to determine any change in behavior pattern of Google searches based on the knowledge of government monitoring (Marthews 11). The study employed panel data to analyze the results and concluded that there was a decrease in searches for health issues and other terms. As such, government surveillance has a chilling effect and consequently changes the behavior of individuals on the Internet (Marthews 11). The article is essential is expanding the research of the adverse impact of the surveillance to include the damage it causes to the profitability of U.S.-based internet companies relative to non-U.S. firms.
McCoy, Kevin. “Government Surveillance in the US. Privacy versus Security.” (2015).
The article gives an overview of the formation of the National Security Agency in November 1952 and information about its headquarter in Fort George, Maryland. The author also outlines the agency’s role in the collection and processing of foreign intelligence that helps the government in carrying out its military operations. The principal objective of the agency is to cryptanalyze foreign intelligence operations. Once the NSA collects the data, it transfers them to the FBI and the CIA, law enforcement institutions that play a vital role in the matters concerning national security (McCoy 6). The author also includes the story of Edward Snowden and the information about government surveillance he revealed to the public and the aftermath of the incident. As such, issues of government surveillance and privacy of individuals also form part of the analysis of the article showing the pertinent of the problem (McCoy 6). The study provides an in-depth understanding of NSA and its surveillance role hence essential for the paper.
Richards, Neil M. “The dangers of surveillance.” Harvard Law Review 126.7 (2013): 1934-1965.
Richards Neil integrates a workshop to aid in exploring various disconnected viewpoints, computer programs, experiments as well as research efforts with the explicit drive to develop coherent approaches that support the enhancement and maintenance of civic intelligence under the current prevailing circumstances (Richards 19). Among the dangers of surveillance include the chilling effect it causes, on legal proceedings and determination of court cases as well as the adverse effects it possesses on good governance and the freedom of individuals to express their views. It also affects the financial privacy of individuals, which also hinders the growth of the private sector as well as online political participation in political activities (Richards 21). The privacy paradox creates a long-term concern about fiscal discretion. The article is essential as it fosters the understanding of the dangers of government surveillance as incorporated in the paper.
In conclusion, the views of different researchers through the annotated bibliography show that the privacy of individuals faces growing threats from the surveillance perpetrated by government apparatus. The practice affects the rooting of good governance in the society as well as the freedom of individuals to express their views. It also fosters deceptive assault to the liberty of the citizens, and its intrusive nature affects the lives of individuals. Based on the above analysis, there is a need for the government to strike adequate balance between national security and rights of citizens.

Works CitedBottom of Form

Altheide, David L. “The Triumph of Fear: Connecting the Dots about Whistleblowers and Surveillance.” International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IJCWT) 4.1 (2014): 1-7.
Etzioni, Amitai. How patriotic is the Patriot Act?: freedom versus security in the age of terrorism. Routledge, 2005.
Joh, Elizabeth E. “Privacy protests: Surveillance evasion and fourth amendment suspicion.” (2013).
Kerr, Orin S. “The Fourth Amendment and the Global Internet.” Stan. L. Rev. 67 (2015): 285.
Krueger, Brian S. “Government surveillance and political participation on the Internet.” Social science computer review 23.4 (2005): 439-452.
Marthews, Alex, and Catherine E. Tucker. “Government surveillance and internet search behavior.” (2015).
McCoy, Kevin. “Government Surveillance in the US. Privacy versus Security.” (2015).
McVeigh, Karen. NSA surveillance program violates the constitution, ACLU says. 2013. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/27/nsa-surveillance-program-illegal-aclu-lawsuit
Richards, Neil M. “The dangers of surveillance.” Harvard Law Review 126.7 (2013): 1934-1965.
Slobogin, Christopher. Privacy at Risk: The New Government Surveillance and the Fourth Amendment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Internet resource.

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