God’s Existence is a topic that has been debated for a long time

Philosophers have differed in their opinions and viewpoints on the existence of God in the past. Some scholars have suggested that God exists and have provided evidence to back up their assertions. The study of philosophy aids individuals in evaluating claims, challenging them, and arriving at a conclusion that may differ from that of others. The various arguments that four previous well-known philosophers have had regarding the question of God’s existence are evaluated in this paper. Anselm’s ontological arguments, Saint Thomas Aquinas’ arguments for God’s existence, Russell’s description of “why he is not a Christian,” and Mackie’s “Evil and Omnipotence” are among the arguments. Saint Thomas Aquinas was an influential philosopher and a doctor of the church who was eager to provide evidence to the world of the existence of God. In an argument to determine “whether the existence of God is self-evident,” Aquinas uses the first principles of demonstrations presented by 1 Poster. Iii. This philosopher says, “when the nature of a whole and of a part is known, it is at once recognized that every whole is greater than its part.” Aquinas proceeds by arguing that whenever the concept of the word ‘God’ is understood, it is more than definite that God exists. The mental understanding of the God makes Him physically present thereby showing that the existence of God is self-evident.

Aquinas’ second argument is whether God exists. The first objection to this argument is that if God existed, then no evil would be discoverable meaning that God’s existence is not authentic. Augustine responds to this objection by claiming that God’s omnipotence is the reason for the evil experienced in the world. Secondly, the rule of nature does not support God’s existence since every occurrence can be accounted for by the principles of nature. However, Aquinas argues that all nature traces back to God. On the contrary, Aquinas presents five ways of proving that God exists. First, this philosopher argues using the concept of motion whereby every moving object must be put on the move by another external force. Everything in the universe is in motion showing that God is the initial mover. Secondly, this philosopher argues using the concept of efficient cause. Nothing is an effective cause of itself. Therefore, it is clear that God is the efficient cause of everything. Thirdly, the issue of necessity manifests. There is no way that a being can have itself as its necessity. Therefore, God is thought to be the necessity of all beings. Fourth, Aquinas analyzes the concept of the nature and traits of humans and claims that God is the cause of their being, nobility, goodness and any other perfection. Lastly, the governance of the world lacks intelligence and acts in a notably similar way to achieve the best results. The source of all knowledge is God.

The arguments of Saint Thomas Aquinas can survive a response. This scholar incorporates fundamental theology and natural science to prove the existence of God. Aquinas responds to the objections that there is no God by giving valid and apt responses making his arguments authentic. He proceeds to give several proofs of the existence of God that are correct in the philosophical aspect.

Russell’s explanation of why he is not a Christian begins by the definition of the term Christian. According to this philosopher, a Christian must first believe in immortality and God. Russel claims that the Catholic Church has come out clearly to state that the existence of God can only be proved by the use of unaided reason. This distinguished philosopher uses the first-cause, natural argument, the argument from design, the moral claims of deity, and the claims for remedying for injustice to justify why he does not believe in Christianity. He concludes his arguments by saying that all individuals must be free thinkers and fearless when questioning the conception of God.

Russell’s arguments are valid and convincing. The philosopher gives an outline that shows that God may not exist and the concept of God is just but the fact that the Catholic church instilled in Christians. However, these arguments cannot survive the response as St. Thomas Aquinas gave replies to these objections and arguments.

Anselm’s arguments portray the existence of God. This philosopher asks God for understanding in Chapter I and begins Chapter II by stating that only fools believe that God is non-existent. According to Anselm, the existence of God is both in understanding and reality. In his text, Anselm gives the characteristics of God that show that He exists. These traits include sensibility, omnipotence, compassion, justice in punishment, sweetness, and God’s unseen nature.

Anselm presents an excellent and emotional argument from the perspective of a staunch Christian. However, this argument may not be valid since the philosopher fails to address the questions of nature. This individual just outlined the traits of God that make Him existent but failed to support the claims with facts.

Lastly, in his piece on Evil and Omnipotence, Mackie strives to access solutions to evil given that God is omnipotent, wholly, and yet evil still exists. Mackie acknowledges that there must be evil if there is good and good is opposed to evil. God must allow evil things for any good to occur. Mackie also claims that the universe is better with the evil that exists than with no evil. These arguments are geared towards proving that God exists. The claims by the renowned scholar have a basis and can survive any response as he uses facts (omnipotence and the concept of necessity) to prove what his claims.

In conclusion, this paper successfully assesses the different arguments that four previous well-known philosophers have had regarding the question of the existence of God. There are only two philosophers whose arguments can survive the response who are Saint Thomas Aquinas and J.L. Mackie. These philosophers had facts associated with their claims and could prove the existence of God.

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