Gender Pay Inequality

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The wage gap between men and women is the disparity in earnings for different occupations that contribute to unequal pay between the sexes (Campos, J. Elizabeth, 2). Although studies suggest that the pay gap for women and men has decreased over the past decade, change has been slow, growing by 0,9-1% since 2015. (Blau, Francine and Lawrence Kahn, 1). Female pay disparities are exacerbated by problems such as stereotypical concepts, the over-representation of women in low-wage employment, women spending time on health care, and related issues. Overall the gender pay inequality affects a woman’s pension, social security benefits, and hence contribute to poverty as the year’s progress.


The issue of gender pay inequality has devastating effects on a woman’s career, costing her over half a million dollars of pay over the course of her career (Karamessini, Maria, and Jill Rubery, 10). Since women earn only 79% of what men are paid in most sections of the job market, they earn almost $10,800 less than men based on the median annual earnings. Factors such as direct discrimination, the undervaluing of women skills, over-representation of women in low paying jobs, as well as traditions and stereotypes are major contributions to this inequality (Alesina, Alberto, Paola Giuliano, and Nathan Nunn, 469-500).

Thesis Statement: The gender pay inequality and substantially less income throughout a woman’s career make it more likely for women to live in poverty in the future.

Main Points

Women earn significantly less than men across many industries (Hegewisch, Ariane, and Heidi Hartmann, 12-18)

The inequality is contributed by factors such as discrimination, over-representation in low paying jobs, and traditions (Blau, Francine).

The low payment leads to a lower contribution to pensions and social security (Blau, Francine, and Lawrence Kahn).

The lower pensions and social security funds affect the financial position of women in the future, leading to poverty in extreme cases.

Purpose of the Study

To investigate the causes of gender pay inequality and its effects on the future financial lives of women.

Significance of the Research

The research aims at championing the rights of women to equal pay by showing the adverse effects of the gender pay inequality to the future life of a woman.


A research will be conducted in the United States database such as the Census Bureau to determine the numbers and statistics on gender pay inequality. Then the social security and retirement pensions earned according to contributions.

A research will be conducted in the library of literature over the past five years covering the topic on the gender gap in the United States.


Alesina, Alberto, Paola Giuliano, and Nathan Nunn. “On the origins of gender roles: Women and the plow.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128.2 (2013): 469-530.

Blau, Francine D. “Gender, inequality, and wages.” OUP Catalogue (2016).

Blau, Francine D., and Lawrence M. Kahn. The gender wage gap: Extent, trends, and explanations. No. w21913. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016.

Campos, J. Elizabeth. “Gender Pay Inequality.” (2015).

Hegewisch, Ariane, and Heidi Hartmann. “Occupational segregation and the gender wage gap: A job half done.” (2014).

Karamessini, Maria, and Jill Rubery. Women and austerity: The economic crisis and the future for gender equality. Vol. 11. Routledge, 2013.

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