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Alice has developmental dyslexia and, like most children with this disorder, has difficulty learning reading, writing, and mathematics skills (Berninger et al. 2008). Her parents can get her audiobooks for reading, draw pictures for her schedule and instructions, and use large print text for worksheets. Instead of writing notes on chalkboards, they can provide her with written copies of her work. It is critical to preserve simple instructions with clear key words for valuable ideas, as well as oral instructions with path repetition; memory accommodation; the use of calculators or written copies of tables; consistent practice with particular attention paid to her reading and writing, as well as having a small group teaching class, memory accommodation; the use of calculators or printed copies of tables in learning mathematics is recommended (Berninger et al. 2008).

Dyslexia affects the accuracy and decoding rate of identification of familiar words, unfamiliar words and spellings (Neilsen et al., 2016). Therefore, Alice requires accommodation for spelling. At the initial stage, her spelling mistakes should be ignored while giving her a grading based on content. Alice must be allowed to use electronic spell checkers, calculators or a printed copy of tables instead of open blank spaces for memory accommodation. Oral review session during class, taking sample tests, oral testing, where teacher records the test question and she listens and answers accordingly, or extending time in order to allow her to complete a test at home under parent’s supervision is recommended for text anxiety accommodation. Also, her tests can be shortened (Neilsen et al., 2016).

Assistive technologies enable students to work at their own place and enable them to accomplish their work independently. It helps them to catch the rhythm of the academic standards. Technology helps them to improve skills, such as writing and organization. Despite the benefits assistive technologies also have certain hindrances, such as high cost, which does not allow many schools to provide them. It requires a proper training to use technologies properly, and it is a time consuming process. Technologies are not completely reliable: malfunctioning can tamper the student’s ability to finish the task in time. Availability of multiple assistive technologies enables student to misuse the ones which are not necessarily required (Beer et al. 2014).

Dyslexic kids use more areas of brain for language processing than an average reader, which makes them become more tired and refuse to perform their homework (Al-Shidhani & Arora, 2012). Alice should be allowed to have some time to relax, which involves a physical activity to help her de-stress. Alice showed her interest in music; therefore, it can be an appropriate way to engage her while doing homework. Her teachers can use different creative and colorful fonts in class or can use audio recordings. Audio notes are less stressful and maintain a better focus at work. Her parents and teachers need to make sure that she gets a least distractive and more interesting environment as per likes and dislikes (Al-Shidhani & Arora, 2012).

Accommodation provision renders students with disability to work around effectively by helping them to access information and convincing such students in their knowledge and ability to do a work. Even if the student with disability cannot achieve a standard benchmark, he or she may learn alternate standards called as Access Points. In general, students with learning disability are exempted from taking standard tests under exceptional circumstances (Florida Department of Education 2017). After passing proper evaluation services, students are eligible for accommodations. The individual educational plan (IEP) team decides the needs of the selected students under the section 504 of Rehabilitation Act considering the present achievements and academic levels along with the effect of disability in order to determine their need in the accommodations.

References

Al-Shidhani, T.A. & Arora, V. (2012). Understanding dyslexia in children through human development and theories. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 12(3), 286-294. PMCID: PMC3529662

Beer, J.D., Engels, J., Heerkens, Y. & Klink, J.V.D. (2014). Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systemic review. BMC Public Health, 14, 77. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-77

Berninger, V.W., Nielsen, K.H., Abbott, R.D., Wijsman, E., & Raskind, W. (2008). Writing problems in developmental dyslexia: under-recognized and under-treated. Journal of School Psychology, 46(1), 1-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.11.008

Florida department of education. (2017). Specific learning disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/academics/exceptional-student-edu/ese-eligibility/specific-learning-disabilities-sld

Nielsen, K., Abbott, R., Griffin, W., Lott, J., Raskind, W., & Berninger, V.W. (2016). Evidence based reading and writing assessment for dyslexia in adolescent and young Adults. Learning Disabilities (Pittsbg), 21(1), 38-56. DOI: 10.18666/LDMJ-2016-V21-I1-6971

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