common knowledge

According to conventional wisdom, authors employ a variety of writing techniques to spread their message. Melville and James Joyce are also included. The writing levels and writing techniques used by Joyce and Melville in The Dead and The Paradise of Bachelors, respectively, are examined in this essay.

Joyce concentrates on writing about the moral history of his town in one of the Dubliners books, The Dead. Notably, he makes an effort to stylistically depict and convey the characters' mental states as well as their reasoning. But he does so by writing in a manner that is concise, unembellished, and dispassionate. His story comes out remarkably by giving a brilliant internalization of the very human nature and behavior and the state of mind.

Joyce employs imagery and imaginations to represent the disillusion and limitations that lead to failure to salvage the characters from the unsatisfying life routine. Furthermore, images in the directional symbolism come out when Joyce narrates that “Moving eastward generally represents youthful attempts to escape life in Dublin, immobility at the center of the city and the frustration of mature characters.”

Moreover, it is in The Dead that the city of Dublin is put into perspective; it is home to James Joyce. Dubliners, a study on human behavior, human values and communication are comprised of fifteen short stories. The background against which the collection of these stories is based is on real names; from streets, shops, resting places, and even icons. Besides, employment of symbolism is evident. In a bid to deal with the very human nature, it necessitates transcending specific persons. The very nature of human beings is captured in Gabriel Convoy, the principal character in the story.

The Dead is written from the third point of view, that is, the actions of Gabriel are not open to the writer’s involvement but rather Joyce reports. However, Joyce employs a smart way of discussing, the points of view are given in the form of imitations; this writing skill is described as mimetic. For instance, “Lily, the caretaker’s daughter, was literally run off her feet” the statement especially the last part is a mimic of what Lily is expected to utter.

Furthermore, the use of epiphany, a religious term, which literally means a revelation of Christ, brings out the art of Joyce’s idea to represent a secular and aesthetic act. In his work, he uses it to nourish and build the main protagonist in the dead, Gabriel. Its use puts into perspective passion and life. It can also be understood that it manifests the spiritual, moral, and mental uplift of the character. The aspect of epiphany is vividly brought out when Gabriel hears his wife talk of her love Michael Furay as well as when Gretta listens to The Lass of Aughrim

The Paradise of Bachelors

The paradise of bachelors is a short story by Herman Melville whose life is characterized by disillusion, determination, and duty to provide for the preservations. Just like the dead by Joyce, Melville’s theme is less of humanity and existence. In this short story, he puts into perspective nine bachelors who not only accompany each other but also drink and entertain each other. All of the nine, they were lawyers.

The writer uses different styles to keep and motivate the reader to read on. From the very on start, Melville uses mockery to prompt one to yearn for the next paragraph, as a quick example, when he is disgusted by the bachelors he says “They have so withdrawn from society that they now have nothing to offer it. They have suckled at the teat of the economy, acquired great wealth and benefits, but now retreat into their Temple where they amuse themselves with no great calling beyond the fruits of wealth” his statement brings the fundamental aspect of the misuse of resources despite the bachelors having nothing to give back to the society. Melville describes them as heirs of the Knights Templar.

Notably, Herman writes the short story in the third person voice. His work is a narration; this is brought out when he says that “rows of blank-looking counters sat rows of blank-looking girls, with blank, white folders in their blank hands, all blankly folding blank paper.” arguably, this, in essence, is a forward-looking way of reporting. Under this, there is a correlation between Joyce’s work and Melville’s; both writers have used a mimic style that is forward-looking. Being a social critic, Melville reveals the unending and dehumanizing lives of the maids. He goes ahead to use metaphor and says “the maids become products themselves to the machines they are slaves to” the criticism goes on to where he sees the maids being exhausted to an extent they are spit out just like sheets of paper(Melville, 2448)

The use of Heaven and Hell and the non-traditional analogy creates an imagery that Melville uses to bring out the spatial separation that exists between the two spheres of life. The juxtaposition of the two aims to castigate the dominant ideology of capitalism. “The bachelors’ paradise is presented as a heavenly haven removed from the care-worn world, an oasis in a dry and barren desert (Melville 2437).” The ideology brings out the illustrious life that the high-end people in society live compared to those the less well-off lead. The superior position of the bachelors’ paradise forms the very fulcrum of the system where the maids depend. The representation further, brings out the aspect of the underworld and the rift between the two different classes of people. Nevertheless, the traditional narrative is short of the gaps, revealing “a society founded on the interactions of autonomous free agents” (John 35).

Melville uses the contrast between the two short stories, the bachelors’ paradise and the Tartarus of maids. This is shown by contrasting the high life the bachelors are given to achieve their goals and privileges in comparison with the struggling life the maids are made to put up with. He says as quoted “A well-earned meal for the elite is walking up a few flights of stairs.” When we juxtaposition the statement with what is said to the female gender the difference comes out strongly. For instance, the following marks the words used to describe the earning by the maids. He says, “A well-earned meal is working twelve hours to the day, day after day, through the three hundred and sixty-five days” this shows how lowly the less fortunate are regarded.

In conclusion, then, the comparison of Melville’s books and the dead by Joyce, similarities, and contrasts manifest themselves. It is true that both writers are forward-looking. Their linguistic prowess has seen them use different styles to not only critic but also offer motivation and encouragement for the readers to continue reading their work.

Works cited

Harty, John. "Joyce's the Dead." The Explicator 47.3 (1989): 35-37.

Bremer, Sidney H. "Exploding the Myth of Rural America and Urban Europe:" My Kinsman, Major Molineux" and" The Paradise of Bachelors and The Tartarus of Maids"." Studies in Short Fiction 18.1 (1981): 49.

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