Cognition and Memory Essay

During my spare time, I enjoy playing rugby. It's because it's fun to watch and play at the same time. My working memory cognitively engages me to obtain the desire to go out on the pitch and be active in my spare time. Working memory determines that it is time to play. As a result, it directs me to get the appropriate equipment and proceed to the pitch to engage myself. It tells me to find the rugby ground and go there to play.
The encoding of past occurrences and events in relation to the method and place in which they occurred is referred to as episodic memory.This helps me remember of the past rugby activity and the venue where I played. It helps me remember how interesting it was and the individuals we played with or against. Through episodic memory, I am able to memorize the manner in which we tackled each other and the number of tries made by who. This enables me to have an urge to keep playing rugby as my leisure activity because it is interesting.

Semantic memory deals with basic common factors that are kept in the long-term memory. Semantic memory helps me identify with the colors of our team kit, names of our opponent teams, my colleague players and places we have gone to play rugby tournaments. In addition, it helps me to grasp, memorize and apply the basic rules and regulations of rugby.

Procedural memory helps me to remember and apply all the rules and skills in the rugby game. This being a contact game, Procedural memory helps me get the correct body conditioning before I enter the pitch. I do achieve this by warming up and stretching. Consequently, getting the tackles right and doing dummies while on the pitch is attributed to procedural memory.

Part Two

Encoding specificity principle states that the ability of an event to be recalled by someone depends on how details of the encoded events interacted with details of the encoded retrieval information. Consequently, the principle of transfer appropriate processing states that it is easier for one to memorize something if the person is in the same state of mind as when the message was being stored. For instance, a message stored during happier times is easily remembered when this person is happy.

However, we will concentrate on the encoding specificity principle. It states that it is easier to recall something if information that was there during encoding is present during retrieval. For instance, one can memorize a certain phrase if part of it which was present during encoding is mentioned. It becomes easier because such information is stored in bits that are almost similar and close to each other in the brain. Encoding specificity means that remembering the context, environment or scenario in which something happened will make it easier for one to remember the same information.

A good example in my lifetime is when we used to sit for random assessment tests during our elementary learning. There was a tendency of me passing passing examinations that were done in rooms where I had learned that specific subject. This was so because it was easier to remember how I acquired certain concepts and through which manner I was able to remember how a certain teacher would talk standing at a particular position. This made it easier for me to remember information and answer my examinations. Learning can be improved through examining learners in environments they were first embedded with information. This will ensure better results and in the long run encouraging the learner to like the subject and do more research about it. This confirms the principle of encoding specificity.

The principle of encoding specificity can be applied in learning institutions. Teachers can apply this in learning that entails practical works. Guiding learners in practical activities and later examining them on the same enables them to retrieve the procedures better. This makes them practical oriented.

Bottom up theory is about the first perception that the mind digests upon information from the body sensory systems. It is the processing the sensory information that it gets at the first instance. In bottom up theory, we want whatever we percept to be brought about by our senses.For instance, if I am in a foreign country and I am looking for a cafeteria, I will be lured to a place that has drawings of snacks and beverages on their doorstep. Drawings of snacks, delicious-looking meat pies and bottles of cold juice immediately coarse the mind that there is an eating place near that place. Consequently, I will be lured to a place that is emitting an aroma smelling like cooking food. This is the perception from the sensory information of the brain.

On the other side, top down theory speak about the perception that comes about through cognitive ways. This comes from the brain after making a detailed conclusion. Top down theory entails a scheme. This is an already set route or pattern that exists in the mind. This is achieved through experience. For instance, if I were in a foreign country and I wanted to eat. I will inquire through sign language. I will pass communication in such a way suggesting that I am hungry. I will be taken to a place to either buy food or eat. This affirms the top down theory. I addition, I will manually walk into a shopping center and look for a cafeteria. It is normal to find cafeterias next to each other and away from traffic jams. I will find one and have my meal.

Part Four

From the link provided, the chess master was required to do a chess position reconstructing task. This was a task that entailed looking at all the chess pieces for five seconds, juggling them and he was to return each piece exactly back to where it was in the first place. This process was repeated five times and this chess master made no mistakes.

This chess master shows high levels of cognitive skills in solving the chess positioning. He was able to show the presence of a higher mental process with a better comprehension phenomenon on all the pieces on the chess board. The chess master is able to solve the problem by outlaying his fears about any possibility of making errors. He overcomes the hidden processes in repositioning the pieces. Consequently, he avoids any stimulus error that may arise with the pressure of performing such a task.

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