Closed “Comprehension” Questions

What Are Some of the Primary Signs, as Defined in the Section, of the Change from Savagery to Civilization?

In the nineteenth century, advances in science, agriculture, and metallurgy helped usher in a transition from savagery to civilization. The invention of writing and the establishment of a centralized administrative system were additional important achievements. (Diamond 217).

Please list the three fundamental strategies that support writing systems.

Answer: The alphabet serves as the first fundamental tactic, followed by logograms and the sign for syllable. The alphabet is the most popular method, while the symbol for each syllable is the least well-known. (Diamond 217).

Explain the Characteristics of the Earliest Sumerian Writing.

Answer: Principals of early Sumerian writing encompassed non-phonetic logograms. These were based on aspects of the Sumerian language pronounced with the different sounds to produce the same meaning. For instance, numerical sign 4 with the various pronunciations like nelja, four, empat, and chetwire by Finnish, English, Indonesian, and Russian speakers (Diamond 220).

Illustrate Instances of Independent Origins of Writing in the History of Human Beings.

Answer: The Principal source of the writing is the Sumerian cuneiform. Other possible independent sources include the Native Americans living in Mesoamerica (Diamond 222).

Identify the Main Inventions of the Ancient Western Eurasian and Mesoamerican.

Answer: Precisely, there are no main similarities apart from the existence of universality of creativity in minimizing ambiguities. The other inventions included vowels, the evolution of writing, and professional linguistics (Diamond 223- 225).

Explain the Elements of Ambiguity in the Ancient Writings among the Mesoamericans and the Greek Community.

Answer: The primary contention in the ancient Greek writing systems displayed the most illustrative dependence on the predecessors of writing. It reigns from the different movements of the Greek and Mesoamericans in the society. However, it is not clear on who initiated the variations (Diamond 234-236).

Open-ended and Interpretation Questions

Knowledge and Power Are Highly Debatable Issues in the Past and Present Society. Do You Contend That Evolution of Writing Is the Main Promoter of Civilization? Support the Sentence.

Answer: Knowledge is vital for enabling people to comprehend the dynamics of change and social sustainability. As highlighted by the author (Diamond), writing compliments the process of knowledge transfer by enhancing accuracy, quantity, and details of the content. Besides, writing has been integral in enabling successful victories since the ancient era (215). This implies that writing complimented the centralized political organization, weapons, and microbes as evinced in the present administrations. However, other factors prompted civilization, for instance, informal education, marriage, and military conflicts (Diamond 215-216).

Sumerian Writing Had a Rich Phonetic Composition That Influenced Major Advancements That We Have in the Present Society. Critically Analyze the Statement.

Answer: It is hard to contend that the Sumerian writing had or lacked adequate contents. However, it is evident that Sumerian writing progressed the rise of a complex combination of signs namely logograms, phonetic, and determinants that enhanced precision by minimizing ambiguities in communication. Equally, it influenced the rise of Maya writing that also complimented the transfer of knowledge. Therefore, the Sumerian writing was an integral part of civilization by enabling significant advancements in industry, weaponry, and centralized administration (Diamond 222 – 227).

Assess the Popularity of Sumerian Writing and Maya Phonetics.

Answer: The popularity of Sumerian and Maya phonetics has significantly dropped because of a combination of social, political, and economic factors. Demographic growth characterized by movements, intermarriages, and formal education facilitated major phonetic evolutions. Precisely, writing and language are comprehensive aspects of the classical development among the Greeks and the Mesoamericans. Hierarchically, the concepts date back to the myriad population movements. Aspects of civilization, for instance, illustrate the focus of the Mycenaean Greek and the historical actions of the Athens as well as other local communities. The initial stage involved the use of the Roman alphabets and other writing aspects (Diamond 223 – 240).

Work Cited

Diamond, Jared M. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. 1st edition. W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.

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