Applying the Critical Thinking Model

The contextual study titled 'Obtaining the Confession' depicts a portion of the moral concerns that police investigators face on a daily basis while on the job. For the scenario analysis, the investigators violated the expert code of morality and the law by deceiving Rod Jones, the Police Chief in charge of a kidnapped child investigation. The main suspect in the case is a man from Mickey's neighborhood named Sylvester Smoot, a convicted sexual stalker. The 'Obtaining the Confession' contextual analysis raises certain moral concerns. The main moral issue on exhibit here is responsibility morals. The criminologists don't have as much proof as they have to capture Smoot or even get a court order. This was an infringement of the code of morals and in legal law upon reporting deceptive claims to the chief police. The contextual investigation additionally has other optional moral issues, for example, dishonesty when criminologists needed to lie in their conviction about the ruffian and weighty morals. Ethical principles in law state that the suspect in question should not be coerced to give any information unwillingly.

2. Research

For the above case, the detective's information to the police Chief Rod Jones on the suspect without solid proof is unlawful. Legally, the detectives have no right to force admissions that is clearly provided in the Fifth Amendment (Cynthia and Bounventre, 2014). To decide if a litigant's admission was intentional, auditing courts normally take part in a particular investigation into the totality of the conditions including the respondent's close to home qualities such as psychological well-being and the conditions under which the admission was acquired. The journal article, "Deception in the interrogation room" plainly identifies with the focal moral issues exhibited for the situation. Morals begin from the possibility that a few things aren't right, and there is a need to take fundamental intercessions to standardize things. For instance, it could have served well for analysts to lie and afterward discover the genuine criminal was the suspected was Smoot.

The journal article, "Liability to Deception and Manipulation: The Ethics of Undercover Policing" underscores on the privilege to willful admissions. From the journal, it is clearly evident that the suspect has the privilege to or not to give an admission to committing a crime of murder to an undercover detective. On different circumstances, the law has no provisions on the legality or illegality of police deception during the attempts to obtain evidence. Nevertheless, there are fundamental understandings and limitations that courts of law can provide interpretation. For instance, law courts do agree that the due diligence requires that admissions be voluntary and not through undue influence. Furthermore, courts by and large concur they'll decide whether an admission was deliberate or constrained in view of a "totality of the conditions." The U.S. Preeminent Court set out the totality of the conditions criteria in Frazier v. Cupp case law. The article plainly delineates diverse conditions where undue influence could be named lawful and unlawful. For example on account of Illinois v. Perkins, 496 U.S. 292 (1990), the Court held that Perkins was not constrained when he admitted to an undercover police detective on his murder.

3. Analysis



Option 2

Police detectives

Lying to the Police Chief

Telling Police Chief the Truth

Sylvester Smoot

Accept to be investigated

Refuse to be investigated on account of breach of privacy

Police Chief Rod Jones

Accepting the detective submissions

Refusing detectives submissions

The focal moral issue is the obligation morals. Every one of the partners for this situation considers have a part to play in this circumstance. Every one of the alternatives exhibited here is material and suitable. One of the alternatives if picked can prompt the friendly arrangement of the focal moral issue associated with this contextual investigation. For instance, considering choices one, contingent upon the choice that a specific partner will make can help understand the circumstance. The huge issue lies in how detectives deception to the police chief on the suspected criminal with no adequate confirmation. Without adequate proof the suspected kidnapper, Sylvester can either chose to refuse entry into his house on account of breach of privacy.

4. Application

The codes of morals are pertinent and usable in numerous professional settings. The hypothesis constructs its contention with respect to the ethical assessment of acts and standards about the moral circumstance being referred to. Regardless of whether the argument is deductive or inductive thinking, there are two general classifications of moral hypotheses that are pertinent. These speculations incorporate significant and non-important hypotheses. For the situation above "Obtaining the confession", a man can recognize some moral imperfections in the exercises that the criminologists were engaged with if the exercises are fundamentally examined.

I. Consequential theory

This hypothesis judges the rightness or the unsoundness of an action in light of the results related to that specific activity. The hypothesis utilizes the lead of utilitarianism, which holds that the best activity is one that delivers the best use for the majority (Yazdani and Hasan, 2015). For instance, in the "Obtaining the confession" case analysis, finding Mickey is the best action that every one of the stakeholders can deliver.

II. Non-consequential theory

This theory looks into the qualities that judge the rightness or unsoundness of an activity in view of properties inborn in the activity and not on its outcomes as in weighty speculations (Nathan 376). Numerous speculations make up non-weighty moral hypotheses. Therefore, this paper will judge the ethical issue based on contractarianism theory. The hypothesis holds there ought to be no consent to a strategy that makes uncompensated damage to any person (Nathan 376). The thinkers in this hypothesis have advanced every living creature's common sense entitlement by broadening moral speculations that fall extensively into this class to non-human living beings. From this theory in the case of "Obtaining the confession" it is hard to legitimize logically investigator's deception to the police chief with the aim of getting proof. Subsequently, the life of Mickey is in danger hence should be given more precedence.

5. Decision-Making

Telling the police chief deceptive lies is a critical decision with regards to building a case and acquiring proof. It isn't lawfully and ethically ideal for the detectives to swindle the police boss into trusting that Sylvester is the criminal. Additionally, it is unreasonable for Mickey to stay in hiding without any trace of her location. Furthermore, it is likewise uncalled for the suspected criminal Sylvester Smoot is suspected on unverifiable cases. From the case "Obtaining the confession" the detectives should comply with the lawful privileges of the suspect and scan for different methods to acquire proof instead of holding claims with no solid confirmation.

6. Evaluation

In "Obtaining the confession" case analysis, there are remote chances for the detectives to uncover sufficient evidence that will enable them to obtain a warrant of arrest of Sylvester Smoot. It is obviously apparent from the case laws, that police detective should not use undue influence to pressure suspects into giving them proof. As exhibited for the situation, it is apparent that Sylvester Smoot has a right to refuse search warrant as it violates his rights. Therefore, the detectives should consider other ways of obtaining evidence to locate Mickey rather than holding unbiased claims towards Sylvester Smoot. Therefore, it is morally unjustifiable to the missing child, Mickey to remain in a dangerous condition. From this argument, disregarding Sylvester as the prime suspect can be ludicrously wrong and consequently, the best choice for this situation is that criminologists ought, to be honest to the police boss on the status of the case.

7 Reflections

I have learned about the codes of morals particularly on different professions in different circumstances. I have enhanced my critical thinking process by concentrating on various factors such code of morals, qualities, and standards as opposed to depending on my own presumption, which might be an imperfect or misleading choice or arrangement. In addition to this, I have familiarized myself with basic deduction devices that are critical for sound thinking and steady basic leadership that isn't deceptive. It is also significant to examine accessible alternatives in a basic leadership procedure to concoct the best choice that is without blemish as extraordinary scholars such as John Stuart Mills, Rene Descartes, Socrates, and Plato among others. More importantly, from the contextual analysis, I have gained consistent, moral thinking that incorporates both inductive and deductive thinking for the advantage of settling on an educated choice.


Cynthia J. Najdowski, C. Bonventre, C “ Deception in the interrogation room.” American Psychological Association, vol. 45, no 5, 2014, p. 26.

Nathan, C. “Liability to Deception and Manipulation: The Ethics of Undercover Policing.” Journal of Applied Philosophy, vol. 34, no 3, 2017. Pp. 370–388.

Yazdani, Naveed, and Hasan Murad. 2015. "Toward an Ethical Theory of Organizing." Journal Of Business Ethics 127, no. 2: 399-417.

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