Appalachia’s Timeline

The primary event in the Appalachia timeline shown in the table below is the Civil War. It lists important local occurrences along with the dates on which they took place.



Important Civil War Event

Lincoln is elected president of the United States on November 6, 1860. The Upper South secedes on January 9, 1861.

3. Lincoln's inauguration on March 4, 1861

4. The Civil War begins on April 12, 1861

5. Bull Run First Battle, July 21, 1861

6. The Seven Days of June 25, 1862


Aug 30, 1862

The Second Battle of Bull Run


June 22, 1863


9. Virginia Overland Campaign of May 4, 1864

10. April 2, 1865–June 15, 1864


Nov 6, 1860: Lincoln becomes the president of the United States

On 6th November 1860, Abraham Lincoln became the President of the United States after winning the election in 1860. Although Lincoln did not win by the popular majority, because he did not appear on the ballot in nine states in the Southern, he gained sufficient votes to overtake his opponents. It is a very pivotal time for the United States and the Appalachia because the president was to be responsible for major changes in the country (Williams 147). The event is important because it caused an immediate succession of those in the lower Cotton States. The president’s actions would positively impact how the country would be in the coming years. It had also marked the end of the political dominance by the South’s including Appalachia, over the nation.

Jan 9, 1861: Upper South Secession

On 9th January 1861, Mississippi seceded out of the former Union in 1861. Lincoln election led to the secession in the South of the 7 Lower Cotton States who was the old and founders of the Confederacy even before Lincoln took over the office. However, the recession resulted in the much division in the 1850s on questions that surrounded the production and production for the cotton and the slave's owners’ rights (Williams 149). The presidency platform that opposed the expansion and growth of slavery into the western territories resulted to the session of the upper South including the Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Arkansas and joined the Confederacy which later accepted the Kentucky and Missouri to be members. The secession is a significant and essential event in the Appalachia because it explains from where the divisions arose.

Mar 4, 1861: Inauguration of Lincoln

After Lincoln won to be the president of the U.S, he was then inaugurated as the United States 16th president. As he receives his Inauguration and his Inaugural Address he gives the South people a warning that was stark and told them that he would not tolerate continued secession (Williams 152).It is an essential event for the Appalachia since they had received the report and warning from the president about their progressing withdrawal not accepted nor tolerated by the president. They ignored the warning and continued secession including the Virginia who preceded secessions sometime after the notice.

Apr 12, 1861: The Start of Civil War

The civil war is probably the United Stated most momentous event. The war began between the shore batteries that was under General P.G.T and Confederate forces where Beauregard opened fire to Major Anderson as well as his troops at Fort Sumter in Charleston. In a few hours later after the bombardment, 50 Confederate mortars and guns launched about 4000 rounds at the fort that had an inadequate supply (Williams 153).On the next day, the Major Robert Anderson gave out and surrendered the fort. However, after two days, the president Abraham Lincoln gave out a declaration and proclamation where up to 75000 volunteer troops were to subdue the Southern insurrection. The beginning of the civil war was essential to the Appalachia since it marked the beginning of the four years that were bloodiest in the country and region.

Jul 21, 1861: First Battle of Bull Run

Union General Irvin McDowell commanded the Battle of Bull Run against the Confederate army. This was after McDowell received his defeat resulting in a panicked move back to Washington that was forty miles away. Subsequently, the fighting of the two opposing forces took place in the hearing of the proximity of hundred f civilians that included the women men and children who came out to watch the primary battle (Williams 154). The fighting started with the three Union divisions crossing the stream of the Bull Run, resulting to the Confederate flank taken back to Henry House Hill. Later the retreat became a fight that is unorganized resulting in a loss of over 3000 men wounded, killed or either missing in actions as the Confederates suffered more than 2000 casualties. It is an essential event in the Appalachia because the blood-shed was significantly horrifying.

OnJun 25, 1862: The Seven Days

The Seven-day battle featured the six different fights that were to the east of Richmond Virginia Peninsula. The Potomac Union Army had over 100000 strong men, yet they were driven away by steadily from the ultimate goals (Williams 156). The battle involved many assaults and deaths to the confederate. After fighting for seven days, General Lee attacked George McClellan’s Unions Army. Enormous casualties made McClellan withdraw from the north towards Washington. It was a remarkable event for the Appalachia because they had many causalities.

Aug 30, 1862: The Second Battle Bull Run

The Confederate General Jackson enjoyed victory during the second battle Bull Run. The Unions General Mr. Pope out of the defeat carries the blame and his duties withdrawn from him after the fight (Williams 158). The battle was essential to the Appalachia because of the fight had more casualties compared to the other, and the Virginia beat soundly.

On June 22, 1863: Chancellorsville

It was a great victory for the Confederacy that as very costly. It resulted in the death of the famous hero who had brought success to many battles, Stonewall Jackson (Williams 161). The casualties for the Confederate almost equaled those of the North’s. It is an essential event because Lee outfoxed another Union general and thus it was a victory.

On May 4, 1864: Virginia Overland Campaign

They were series of battles that were fought in May and June in Virginia in the American Civil War. Despite Grant suffering the severe loses that came up during the campaign, it was a very strategic Union victory (Williams 112). It impacted proportionately higher losses on the army, and it maneuvered to a siege at Petersburg and Richmond, Virginia. It begun a drive whose aim was to end the war, 120,000 troops and Ulysses S. Grant marched towards the south to Richmond, the capital of the Confederate. In a period of a few weeks that followed, there was a brutal war that caused deaths of about 50000 Union soldiers thus making the event very important for the Appalachia.

On June 15, 1864 – April 2, 1865: Petersburg

It was after four more months after a month where Lee and rant had been fighting for almost battles that were daily. Grant used 100000 of his men army to pound the lines of the Confederate, but Lee undersized and small army had not broken. Both armies had already undergone a loss of many casualties (Williams 157). The north had an easier refill of its victims compared to the north superiors. Later on, they met at the Appomattox Courthouse, and they all agreed to the terms. The Confederate officers accepted to keep their side arms while the ordinary soldiers keep their horses. The agreement and the fights involved made the event an important event.

Work cited

Williams, John Alexander. Appalachia: A history. Univ of North Carolina Press, 2002.

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