Unlike its precursors, Romanticism emphasizes more on individualism, imagination and energized art. Originated in 18th century, Romanticism though closely linked to love, focuses more on a wide array of ideas with love as a regular feature. Expression of selves independently was brought in by Romanticism. It all started in Germany when a group of young artist the existing status of politics and art. Individualism was advocated for as against enlightenment. Through describing biological aspects, endowments and valued decorations and endowments, artists during this epoch exalted humanity. Thus, this movement ushered in the idea of self-glorification and the need for freedom.
Wright, N. (2014). The Disenchanted Romanticism of James Brown. Journal of New Zealand Literature: JNZL, (32), 119-140. Retrieved from,http://www.jstor.org/stable/43198620.
According to this article, romanticism took on the ideals of the revolution, emulating the French revolution. Its advocates vouched for the use of emotions and reason as essential aspects of art. Individual creativity and insight were much valued by the proponents of this movement. One is better satisfied with the world when their liberties are assured, as well as their ability to express themselves freely. In rebellion against Neoclassicism, this movement gave artists more coverage as they could do anything they pleased. Notably, it brought with it more connection of individuals with their environmental surroundings.
Makdisi, S. (2011). Introduction: Worldly Romanticism. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 65(4), 429-432. doi:10.1525/ncl.2011.65.4.429.
In the emergence of romanticism movement, people used their imagination to make art that resonated with nature and their emotions. They extended their paintings to the exterior where they related to nature with their feelings and produced art. For instance, one would keenly observe the landscape and draw certain opinions from which they made art and literature. Art became more visualized, allowing people to easily relate to it. Rather than focusing on themes and subjects, romantic art concentrated entirely on feelings.
Art and craft movement
Triggs, O. L. (2012). The arts & crafts movement. New York: Parkstone International Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.
In this book, Triggs traces the origin of the movement to 1860s in Britain. Over the years, the movement spread across Europe and Asia and ultimately, the whole world. In this regard, it is credited for being one of the most potent modern-day art movements that arose from industrialization. There was the need to change people’s lifestyles, as well as their art in every aspect. Industrialization had brought out enormous changes in work designs, and a shift in traditional systems that affected ordinary folk. Unlike its predecessors, this movement recognized the importance of materials and designs and improvement of the quality of life. Notably, it was characterized by spirited reforms. The industrial revolution had impersonalized life; hence, the movement sought to restore normalcy.
Stoodley, S. G. (2016). The Hand of the Craftsman. .Art & Antiques, 40(1), 80.
The most notable documentations of this movement are about Britain and America. America adopted its reformist approach in the 1890s. British were resistance and intolerant to industrialization, whereas the Americans readily accepted the use of machines. Proponents of this regime argued that to achieve significant handicrafts, the relationship between an artist and his piece had to be defined. Artists are highly likely to be satisfied with their work if they make beautiful and unusual pieces. As such, this era is known for decorative arts and designs. Art and crafts differed, depending on the place. However, it was mainly about nature and antiques.
Yorke, T. (2011).Arts & Crafts House Styles. Newbury, England: Countryside Books.
Since art and craft movement focused on people_x0092_s lifestyles, rather than art styles, it utilized almost every style of design and decorations. Precisely, it was not limited to a particular style. A given piece or architectural design would show a wide variety of styles used concurrently. Diverse media were used to bring beauty and fulfillment to both the artist and user of the genre. For instance, a house would be constructed using a mix of styles.
Native American Art
The style is also called the Indian art or American Indian art, given that it documents the art of the indigenous American people.
Kate Morris. (2011). Running the _x0093_Medicine Line_x0094_: Images of the Border in Contemporary Native American Art. American Indian Quarterly,35(4), 549-578.
According to this article, most Native Americans did not have a perception of art in essence. Some could not even define it in their languages. Artists were viewed as people who were better than others in performing specific tasks. In this context, the definition differs from the contemporary European view. The few artists were sponsored by the effluent to make religious and memorial art. Despite lack of perception among the natives, there was clarity in art shown by woven baskets and carvings.
Bishop, C. (2014). Native American Art of the Northwest Coast. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.
Artists in native America had to localize their art with traditions for it to be understood as the society was rigid. However, there were a few notable North America artists such as Nampeyó and María Martínez who developed art styles that conformed to their culture. Notably, this happened in Mimbres, Haida and Mound Builder cultures of the Southeast. They used naturally available materials for their art.
Racette, S. F. (2017). Tuft Life: Stitching Sovereignty in Contemporary Indigenous Art. Art Journal, 76(2), 114
The journal discusses art practices in Native America. While it is cumbersome to date the origin of their art designs, it is believed that most came from nature, whereas others were copied from the western cultures. Some artists would develop their designs from imagination. Art was a sign of belonging to the people. Also, some styles were religious. Art was displayed in the ways of life; politics, arms, and regalia.