Unlike the English kings, who held influence with the nobles and a smaller aristocracy known as the gentry, whose members formed the legislature known as Parliament, which consisted of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
King James VI of Scotland (1603)… became England’s King after her distant aunt; Queen Elizabeth died without a child to inherit the throne and governed by divine right, which meant he was only answerable to God, as opposed to the Queen who ruled under Constitutional authority. Puritans were … dissenters who believed that the Church of England needed further purification.
Separatists and King James …had an intense relationship as separatist wanted to create their own independent congregation. James I got infuriated and vowed to make them conform or hurry them out of the land or even worse.
King Charles I (1625) and problems with Parliament…started after he inherited the throne from his father. He became a much great defer of the royal power and even raised taxes without consulting the House of Lords and Common. He disbanded parliament from 1629 to 1640.
Oliver Cromwell (and the English Civil War 1646-1649)…captured Charles and in trial that was unprecedented in 1646. He was convicted of contempt of parliament and high treason thus being labeled as a tyrant, traitor, and public enemy. In 1649, Charles was beheaded.
King Charles II (1660) … eldest son of the executed King was made a King again after the restoration of the monarch.
King James II (1685) … who was King Charles II younger brother was more rigid. He fully embraced Catholicism in the Protestant England, and ordered political opponents imprisoned or murdered, and defied the parliament.
the Glorious Revolution …was a successful revolt made by political, religious, and military leaders who overthrew James II who wanted the monarch to be under Catholicism and replaced him with the Kings Protestant daughter, Mary Stuart, and her husband, the ruling Dutch Prince William the III of Orange. James II later fled to France after the Dutch army landed in England. Parliament’s right to counterbalance the authority of monarch was reasserted.
II. American Colonies
* People and Profits
Spanish settlements …were royal expeditions whereby much of the land and wealth the Spanish stole from the Americans became the monarchs’ property who funded the conquistadores.
English colonization …in the Americas was led by two different groups, which sometimes overlapped as some of them were seeking religious freedom from persecution, both Catholics and Protestants, while others seeked wealth and land.
joint-stock companies…were formed after investors purchased shares of stock together. The Englishmen who were interested in colonization came together to share the financial risks needed to start a colony in the “American wilderness.”
* Self-Sustaining Colonies
English settlements were …much more compact than those in New Spain.
English gov’t and investors’ two goals …for the American colonies were to offer valuable raw materials like tobacco for smoking and to develop a thriving consumer market for English manufactured products.
* The Landless English
population explosion …outstripped England’s economy’s ability to support its surplus of landless workers.
enclosure of farmlands …whereby peasants lived and worked on plantation brought a social strain to the English.
joint-stock company (VA Company and others)…were owned by merchant investors seeking to gain from the silver and gold that they hoped to find in America.
Jamestown (1607)… was the place the 100 men and boys settled after evading the Spanish raiders after experiencing storms in the seas.
Powhatan Confederacy …may have been the greatest group of native peoples along the Atlantic coast.
John Smith v. Chief Powhatan …Chief Powtan was a dictator who was much feared by other chiefs in the region and conquered most of their lands. When John Smith was appointed by the Virginia Company to be among the council members in managing Jamestown, Powtan found his march since John was a tough mercenary. Both of them were respected by their people due to their demanding leadership.
winter 1609-1610 …Jamestown food supply ran out and majority of people died due to starvation or diseases.
tobacco (planted by John Rolfe) …revived Jamestown since it was highly marketable in Europe thus lots of tones were exported leading to more wealth in the colony.
* Indentured Servants
indentured servants …were colonists who exchanged several years of labor for grant of land and for the cost of passage to America.
treatment …was harsh just like being enslaved whereby they were whipped, their working hours extended after a bad behavior, and their marriages required their masters permission.
when indenture ended …after four to seven years, servants could claim freedom dues set by law and custom in terms of food, clothing, and small pieces of land.
Pocahontas (story according to John Smith) … was the favorite daughter of Chief Powtan. She was different from her people whereby in many occasions she saved the life of John Smith. The most notable one was when the Indians prepared to execute him after he was convicted on charges of trespassing.
life with John Rolfe … began when she converted to Christianity being named as Rebecca. They later migrated to London were she drew a lot of attention though their life together was short-lived after she contracted a lung disease and died. John Rolfe is credited as having introduced tobacco in Jamestown.
* The Virginia Company Prospers
headright system … was mainly a land grant program, which stated that any male English colonist who bought a share in the Virginia company and could pay for his passage to the colony could acquire fifty acres of land and fifty for each of his servants that he came along with.
rights of Englishmen …included being an elected legislature who advised the colonial governor and that every person will have to obey laws that have yielded to their consent.
(1619) English ship of women …arrived in Jamestown whereby men rushed to claim each and everyone as wives with each of them offering 125 pounds of tobacco to cover the cost of their transatlantic passage.
Dutch ship with first slaves …was the first to bring enslaved Africans to America.
as a royal colony (1624) …some 14, 000 Englishmen including men, women, and children arrived in Jamestown with only 1,132 remaining as survivors.
* Bacon’s Rebellion
large VA planters v. poor tobacco farmers … was precisely fired by the greed of largest planters who wanted to live like English gentlemen who were known to own large tracks of land within countryside. To achieve this started driving freed servants out of their lands and mostly those along rivers presumed to be the most fertile ones. As a consequence, many of free white men were landless squatting in private properties and basically struggling to survive.
Bacon’s Rebellion … was driven by the increasing tension amongst the landless colonists and eventually erupted between the white planters and the Native Americans after continued attacks from both sides.
Indian attacks and Bacon’s assaults … occurred when several Indians were murdered and the subsequent killings of five native chieftains by the frontier vigilantes taken assaults propagated by Bacon, the self-acclaimed leader of the vigilantes. The situation escalated becoming a battle of the landless servants, small farmers and slaves against the Virginia’s wealthiest planters and political leaders in the area.
the demise of Jamestown and Bacon! …happened after it was burned down by Bacon’s vigilantes and Bacon died thereafter after falling ill.
King Charles I (1634) and Lord Baltimore …were good allies whereby the King granted him 12 acres of the colony
first proprietary colony … was owned by individuals not by the joint stock company
created as a … a family oriented colony.
three differences between MD and VA …MD was a land of freemen whereby it gave room for the Protestants while VA did not offer room to them. VA struggled for about 20 years to achieve a stable economy unlike MD, which succeeded easily due to its focus on tobacco growing. MD has an easy shipping coastline to transport their products with ease unlike VA that was not situated close to a coastline.
the majority of the people were … Catholics in the belief that they could take over from their counterparts.
A. Settling New England
the New England colonies were intended … for self-governing religious ideals based on the teachings of John Calvin who dictated what people were to follow.
a healthier place and growing population … was a result of the ample climate the place offered with limited cases of infectious diseases hence sparking population growth and consequently surpassing that of Virginia.
on a divine mission … the pilgrims and puritans wanted to create a model Christian society. The puritans had for a long time wanted to have that state where the church could be observed with dignity it deserved.
Separatists … established the first permanent English settlement in New England. Majority of them had been expelled from their homelands and in search of a conducive environment to foster their ideologies.
The Mayflower (1620) … was the vessel the strangers used to cross the Atlantic in search of a new settlement area. This however brought so much inadequacies that even brought to the establishment of the most remarkable towns of the time.
Mayflower Compact … was an agreement between the strangers and the separatists on-board the Mayflower vessel in forming a new church.
a “starving time” … was similar to the hardships and starvation experienced by early colonists in Jamestown.
* Massachusetts Bay
Puritans (Congregationalists) wanted … to purify the Church of England from within but not separate from it.
King Charles I (1629) and Puritans… agreed on a loyal charter in a way that fostered harmony amongst the inhabitants.
“a city on a hill” … was the anticipated colony considered to be a safe haven for puritans and a model Christianity community.
Gov. John Winthrop and a government that enforced … transferred the authority from London to Massachusetts in order to rule themselves.
Anne Hutchinson … was a strong-willed and intelligent woman who openly expressed her religious views regardless of the instituted regulations to govern the area.
Mass. Bay Colony’s royal charter evolved … into a provincial government and served as was a unique of colonizing.
Mass. General Court organized itself … consisted of shareholders that included property owners also freed men.
Puritans who had fled … were adequately represented and protected in the royal charter and were able to enjoy their membership in the church to the rights of voting and basically becoming freemen.
Roger Williams (1631) …was among the first people to create problems simply because he was a separatist.
True puritanism required … a complete separation of the church and the state and the freedom from being coerced into matters of faith.
(Roger Williams’ quote, “…forced worship, stinks in God’s nostrils”).
Providence (start of Rhode Island) … was the most democratic of all the colonies.
* Connecticut, New Hampshire and Maine
Rev. Thomas Hooker (1634) …led three church congregations from Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut form where they organized a self-governing colony.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason (1622) … were given control of the now New Hampshire and Maine.
Maine and New Hampshire (1679) … was divided by Mason and Gorges.
II. The English Civil War in America
New Netherlands (Dutch territory) was in-between … New England and the Chesapeake Bay within the Atlantic coast.
Note: In 1642, the English arrested and later beheaded King Charles I for dismissing Parliament (becoming a dictator) and for his blatant Catholic oppression of Protestants. Oliver Cromwell, leader of the largely Protestant army, became the Puritan ruler until 1658 (calling himself Lord Protector.) Cromwell’s authority not only changed things in England but also in the English colonies. When Cromwell abdicated control of England, the country asked the dead king’s son Charles II to take the throne. (He said,’yes!’)
The New England Confederation (1634) … was formed to provide defense against the Dutch, French, and Indians.
Virginia and Maryland defied … Cromwell’s dictatorship rule.
The Restoration of Charles II (the dead king’s son) (1660) restored … restored equally painless reinstatement of previous governments in the colonies.
III. The Restoration in the Colonies
The Restoration of Charles II to the throne revived … interests amongst the English in regard to colonial expansion.
The area taken from the Dutch became … New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware.
(1663) King Charles II granted the Carolinas to …8 prominent supporters who later became lords proprietor.
* The Carolinas
Two separate areas … were the North and South Carolina colonies.
sugar planters from the Caribbean island Barbados … were hugely profitable based on enslaved Africans as laborers.
from the start, S. Carolina was … was inhabited by native Indians.
headrights were given … the right to own land and slaves as well.
(1712) the Carolina colony … immersed into colonial violence with the Tuscaroras of North Carolina attacking Germans and English colonists who had invaded their land.
main agricultural products … was sugar.
* Enslaving the Indians
the growing trade in deerskins led to buying … of captives as slaves.
(1670-1715) more enslaved Indians … were women and their children.
the Tuscarora War (1712) in N Carolina… was as a result of Germans and English colonists invading their land that led the killing of more than 100 whites and fleeing of hundreds of the colonists.
the Yamasee War (1715) in S. Carolina … attacked coastal plantations and killed more than 100 whites.
(1727) Creeks and Cherokees in a blood feud … was much to the delight of the English.
(1700-1730) Indian population dropped …from15, 000 to 4,000.
IV. The Middle Colonies and Georgia
Between New England and the English Chesapeake were … middle colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
*New Netherland Becomes New York
Dutch East India Company (1602) and Henry Hudson … explored America in hopes of finding a northwest passage to the spice-rich Indies.
New Netherland was … created as a profit-making enterprise just like Virginia and Massachusetts.
New Amsterdam as a fort and fur-trading post … was located at the end of the island.
The Dutch embraced … ethnic and religious diversity.
(1654) Jews form Portugal and Peter Stuyvesant … arrived in New Amsterdam but the anti-Semitic governor, Peter Stuyvesant, at first refused to grant them asylum.
Jewish communities in America grew slowly because … of the imposed restrictions especially at expressing their beliefs and praying in the open.
(1626) the importing … of enslaved Africans was conducted by the Dutch West India Company to beat labor shortage.
The takeover (1664) by the Duke of York, and renaming … both New Netherland and the city of New Amsterdam as New York in an honor to the Duke of York.
The Duke of York granted … lands between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to Sir George and Lord John Berkeley.
Disaffected Puritans formed… Newark, Carterets brother also brought a group that formed Elizabethtown while Scots formed Perth Amboy.
Scots, Swedes, Finns, Dutch … remained even though they were later on swarmed by English and Welsh Quakers together with Scot-Irish and German settlers.
(1702) East and West Jersey … were united as the single royal colony of New Jersey.
Quakers became the most … controversial of the radical religious groups that emerged from the English Civil War.
founded by G. Fox (1647) Quakers … rebelled against all forms of political and religious authority.
radical beliefs: … made Quakers believe that people were really good and could achieve salvation through personal, emotional communication with God. They also demanded full religious for everybody and also promoted equality. They also embraced fierce pacifism and discarded all forms of religious rituals.
William Penn’s history … was that he was against the beliefs of the Quakers though a very wealthy Admiral knighted by the King.
Penn encouraged… people of different religions and from different countries to settle in his new colony based on his belief that people of all faiths and nations would live together in harmony.
Relations with Native Americans … were unusually good as a result of friendliness with the Quakers and the policy of younger Penn especially in the buying of land tittles from the natives.
(1682) William Penn … was given an area in Delaware, a part of the former Dutch territory by the Duke of York.
After 1704 … Delaware as a part of Pennsylvania was given the right to choose its own assembly.
(1732) King George II gave … the land between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers to 21 English trustees appointed to govern the Province of Georgia, named in honor of the king.
Two reasons for the colony … were that it provided a military buffer against Spanish Florida and to serve as a social experiment bringing together settlers from different countries and regions many of them refugees and debtors.
James Oglethorpe (social reformer) designed Savannah with … a grid of crisscrossing roads decorated by numerous parks.
As a social experiment, (criminals were taken from English prison and given a ‘fresh start’) the colony … grew rapidly.
Some of the initial laws in Georgia were … banning of liquor and slavery.
Economy in Georgia was based on … exportation of rice, lumber, beef and pork and trade with the islands of West Indies.
V. Native Peoples and English Settlers
Difference in England’s strategy as compared to France and Netherlands … was based on the exploitation of fur trade.
to get fur pelts the French and Dutch … built a trading outposts in upper New York and along the great lakes and established friendly relations with the Algonquians, Hurons, and other natives.
in contrast the English … colonists became much more fascinated in their assumed “God given right” in pursuing hunting and farming on Indian lands. They also fished on Indian waters.
*Native Americans and Christianity
New England colonists’ attempts at converting the Indians … into Christianity and into a more civilized way of living thereby forcing them to leave their homes, language, names, clothes, and culture to move them to praying town.
* The Pequot War
New England Puritans viewed Indians as … as barbaric, creatures merciless and cruel who had no place in New England.
the Pequot War (1637) in Mass… destroyed Indian villages that lastly came to extinction.
* King Philip’s War
Native Americans in poverty and fear … was a result of a significant reduction of English settlers influx in the area though their relations with the Indians had somewhat improved.
Metacomet (King Philip) … was the Wampanoags chief.
John Sassamon … was a Christian Indian who had studied from Harvard College and who came to warn the English of an impending war from the Wampanoags.
King Philip’s War and brutal fighting … was the battle between the two warring sides that led to deaths and a lot of property destructions in New England.
Metacomet’s end; his family’s end … when his wife and son were captured.
By the end, ¾ … of the Indians in New England had been killed.
*The Iroquois League
Indian groups were doomed due to … their inability to unite effectively against Europeans and their vulnerability to infectious diseases.
Iroquois League was a confederation of … Iroquois nations, i.e. Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk.
The strength of the Iroquois forced the … Dutch and English traders to work with them in order to acquire sufficient beaver pelts.
They gained control over a huge area from … St. Lawrence River to Tennessee and from Maine to Michigan.
For over 20 years warfare raged between … the Iroquois under the support of Dutch and English fur traders and the Algonquians and Hurons and their French allies.
After making peace with the French (1701) the Iroquois played … the English against the French while creating a thriving fur trade for themselves.
VI. Slavery in the Colonies
*Slavery in North America
By 1700, enslaved Africans made up … % of the total population in the American colonies.
Slavery varied greatly from … the year 1770 by 20%.
and was much more predominate … in the Chesapeake colonies and the Carolinas.
*Slavery’s African Roots
more than 10 million people … eventually made the terrifying journey with majority of them going to Brazil or to Caribbean sugar islands like Barbados and Jamaica.
previously, living in Africa and African slavery… was nonetheless not quite different from those done by the colonists since even the Africans preyed on their fellow Africans thus engaging each other in wars.
“slave forts” … were located along the West African coast in which the European slave traders were able to purchase slaves held into captivity in this locations.
the Middle Passage … was a four-week to six six-month transatlantic voyage whereby the purchased slaves were transported in British-owned slave ships packed below the decks.
slave traders and the rapid growth of slavery in the western hemisphere … was generally contributed by the high profits gained from the trade.
work gangs, “drivers,” and overseers … were those who worked in the large southern tobacco, sugarcane and rice plantations under the supervision of black drivers and white overseers.
ingenious ways to cope … involved organized rebellions from the enslaved Africans by resisting work orders, damaging the crops and stealing tools with others faking illness or injury or just running away.
African heritages woven into American culture… included certain aspects of their heritage, for instance, the introduction of new vocabulary and words such tabby and tote.
Slaves often used … their songs, stories and religious preaching for the purpose of conveying coded messages in expressing the brutal manners they were treated.
the fundamental theme of slave religion … was deliberately enforced to them and adopted from Christianity with a promise of deliverance.
VII. Thriving Colonies
English failures … were mostly brought about by the brutal ways that they handled their slaves. Most of the settlers did experience desperation, hard labor, diseases, and early death in the New World. The only way they survived was a result of exploiting Indians, indentured servants or Africans.
English successes … were because most of their enterprises were for profit orientations with minimal royal control. Besides, they had escaped the many challenges in their homeland and vested great interest in America for their own survival. They also lived self-governing principles, which motivated them to become more dynamic and creative.