The term honor

The Concept of Honor

The word honor has traditionally been used to refer to individuals who have achieved great things or who have good moral character. Additionally, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts as both a verb and a word. For instance, receiving honors at graduation indicates that the graduate made outstanding academic progress. Honor typically refers to a prestigious name or image as well as a high level of public esteem. (Firth, 2016). Honor also refers to a commitment to upholding a moral code or a standard of behavior. Since the beginning of time, honor has been regarded as a value. Even though this was unusual in kings, Caesar Augustus was renowned historically for having traits that stood for honor. Honor enabled Augustus Caesar to stand out among the known roman rulers who ever existed. (Firth, 2016). His character is said to have been cruel at a young age but becoming graceful later on. He tolerated criticism and had strict public moral viewpoints. This type of character made Augustus Caesar achieve some of the most important accomplishments in Roman history, peace all through the empire, a single currency and overall standardization. This emperor pursued a constructive program including construction of aqueducts, highways, road and bridges networks as well as buildings.

Caesar Augustus and His Vision

Caesar Augustus envisioned a highway transportation network which would link the whole empire to Rome in addition to initiating a postal organization, publishing of works in various fields such as literature and arts, while generally supporting Roman enlightenment. As a ruler, Augustus Caesar was charitable and great ruler who championed development. This fact has been inferred from the study of historical and archeological information about the great rise in the Roman population in his rule. That the Roman population increased immensely during his reign has been by recorded censuses and such population increase only occur during times of peace, prosperity, law and order. History and archaeology fields study human past and both these areas of study have developed techniques for examining this past in a way that that reveals accurate information about the history of our past.

Sumerian Cultural Legacies

The Sumerian culture is thought to have emerged from about 4000 B.C. on the desert floodplain region down the rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the modern day Iraq now exists. These mysterious Mesopotamians became renown for the invention of cuneiform writing, forging strong religious as well as literary customs while making great strides in relation to agriculture government, urban development and mathematics, urban planning. Sumerian cultural legacies are some of the first advanced and complex known civilizations in history. There has been much debate about where the Sumerian culture originated in or before Mesopotamia; however, evidence from archaeological work mainly shows that this civilization had established several city-states around 4000 through 3000 BC. The cities were generally made of walled towns dominated by Sumerian religious temples. Sumerians built houses using bunched marsh reeds as well as mud bricks. They also constructed complex irrigation systems along the Tigris and Euphrates which they used to farm. Some notable Sumerian city-states are such as Uruk, one of the oldest cities of the civilization and were a flourishing trading center, Nippur and Eridu. Uruk might all together have been the greatest city in the entire world at the time.

Etana, the Earliest Sumerian Ruler

Samuel Noah Kramer, a Sumerian scholar reflects on the earliest Sumerian ruler, the king known as Etana from Kish, whose accomplishments were briefly recorded. (Kramer, 1963). According to this scholar, Etana of Kish possibly rose to the throne in early in 3000 B.C. and was described in the listing of kings as 'the one who made the entire lands stable'. (Kramer, 1963) The listing of Sumerian Kings is a document in Sumerian cuneiform drawn by a scribe from a city, Lagash, about 2100 BC. (Kramer, 1963). In it, the scribe lists every king in that region, together with their achievements, ostensibly in the effort to demonstrate continuity in the order within society from when civilization began. (Kramer, 1963) The Sumerians cuneiform was written using reed straws to make imprints on clay tablets. Many of these cuneiform script imprinted clay tablets have been discovered from archaeological excavations. The Sumerian civilization and culture made a great impact on other cultures and became an example for many great civilizations that were to come later. The Sumerian cultural legacy prevailed throughout Mesopotamia before eventually dying off. Nevertheless, this culture still continues through many facets of civilization and these aspects have mostly been taken for granted as having always been existing by many people in the modern day.

The Reign of Kublai Khan

Reign of Kublai Khan c. 1260 to 129. Location: Somewhere in the present day China.

Many people from the Western world have accepted the stereotypical perspective that considers Mongols to be barbaric marauders intent only on maiming, killing, and destruction. This opinion, built from popular accounts about the swiftness, brutality and mercilessness with which the Mongolian empire was established as the largest bordering land kingdom in the history of the world, has formed the Western imagination about the Mongols as well as their leader, Genghis Khan. This kind of viewpoint has greatly sidetracked notice of as well as interest in the extensive contributions which the Mongols are making towards civilization. Even though I have noted the cruelty and violence with which the Mongols conduct their military campaigns, and this fact cannot be ignored or taken for granted, I have realized that their progressive and influential culture should be held in good esteem.

I have witnessed The Mongolians here in China and seen for myself the influence of the reign of Kublai Khan, who is the grandson of Genghis Khan. Kublai is very fond of patronizing paintings as well as the theater, where I have had the honor of meeting him. The cultural life here in China under Mongol rule has brought organization in government, public development as well as trade. Kublai through his administration have enlisted and make use of Confucian scholars as well as Tibetan monks as advisers. This strategy has produced many pioneering ideas and advances in the fields of medicine, government and astronomy in the entire China. I visited the Grand Canal which has been constructed towards Beijing. I came to the capital city in Daidu so that I could purchase silk and paintings which I intend to trade once I arrive back home. I have also visited the magnificent Shangdu summer palaces. Unbelievably, the Mongols constructed a substantial road network as well as postal locations throughout china and there are many developments in the areas of science, astronomy and engineering. (Serruys, 2016).

The Mongol Empire as a Link between Europe and Asia

Probably, the most important fact I can see now is that the Mongol empire can become a very significant link between Europe and Asia. The Mongols have achieved comparative stability as well as law and order in this recently acquired realm, and I have also noticed with great interest that the Mongols do not discourage or hinder relations with foreigners. Although they constantly support their declarations of universal rule, their hospitability to foreigners and travelers, including the ones whose monarchs did not present to them is very great and I can now see how their tolerance is renown in this region. The Mongols are also very fond of travel and are astute traders who expedite and promote travelling within the considerable region of Asia which is under their reign. (Clements, 2010). The Mongols permitted me as well as many other European merchants, craftsmen, and diplomats to journey throughout China as is their custom. Their goods which reach Europe through the caravan trails are mainly silk, spices and craftwork and the growing European demand for Mongolian products is what inspired me to travel through a sea route from England to Asia. I can confidently say that the Mongol campaigns are really inspiring the spirit of exploration back in England.

Works Cited

Clements, Jonathan. A brief history of Khubilai Khan. Running Press, 2010.

Firth, John Benjamin. Augustus Caesar: And the Organization of the Empire of Rome (Classic Reprint). FORGOTTEN BOOKS, 2016.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1963

Serruys, Henry. “Background to war : The rise of the Mongols.” Genghis Khan & The Mongol Conquests 1190–1400 : Essential Histories, vol. 27, no. 1, 27 Apr. 2016, pp. 233–305.

Deadline is approaching?

Wait no more. Let us write you an essay from scratch

Receive Paper In 3 Hours
Calculate the Price
275 words
First order 15%
Total Price:
$38.07 $38.07
Calculating ellipsis
Hire an expert
This discount is valid only for orders of new customer and with the total more than 25$
This sample could have been used by your fellow student... Get your own unique essay on any topic and submit it by the deadline.

Find Out the Cost of Your Paper

Get Price