Friedrich Nietzsche’s first point was that God is no longer alive. He claims that this is due to the introduction of science, which has taken the place of Christianity’s explanatory role. The entire concept was based on Europe’s modernization period. In his books, Friedrich does not see modernization as a positive advancement in human life. Rather, he sees it as God’s tragic and traumatic death. Because various inventions replaced the solutions that Christianity offered in its values and teachings, this was the case. He also mentions Nihilism as a possible replacement for God, but only if humans create their own values (Nietzsche, 118). In the formation of values by humans, he further states that such beings need to think beyond evil and good. This is because no one is aware yet of what is evil and right, a process he calls value transvaluation (Nietzsche, 118). He uses the term superman or ubermensch to refer to someone who is independent, genius and spiritually endowed to form his values (Nietzsche, 68). The Superman takes life hardships as a healthy way and lives joyously regardless of such. He further talked about embracing difficulties as the only way to greatness and that avoiding hardship was unnecessary. The Superman according to him is that individual who is willing to sacrifice anything for the good of humanity. In contrast, Nietzsche talks about the last man, whose interests are egocentric and selfish. The last man cannot create anything on his own or for the benefit of the whole community. Nietzsche wants us to say yes to our life. He captures this through his idea of eternal recurrence which requires humans to face life head-on and embrace life challenges.
Additionally, to Friedrich, the impulse to create and innovate was a more motivating factor to humans than the urge to live. His theory also depicts him as an anti-rationalist. In his view, rationalism inhibited man’s desire to create new ideas (Nietzsche, 88). He was also of the notion that those who hated new values were enemies of progress. This assertion made him an anti-Semite because they rejected and resented those who created new ideas. He also criticized the current morality standings in the society. This concept was explained under the master-slave morality discussion. He addresses the master morality as the super-rich regarding ideas, opinions, wealth and influence at the expense of the slaves. Slaves have no voice in the current standing of the society. In case of any complaints from slaves, they face the danger of being sacked or killed. The Will to Power was also a significant point of reference in his works (Nietzsche, 198). He believed the natural desire of a man to create new ideas was due to power monopoly. Perspectivism was also his primary aspect in most of his theories of life. This principle was centered on the foundation that each belief, idea or thought that existed had its explanations (Nietzsche, 78). He continues and adds that there is an impossibility that humans can detach from such realities to justify their own mistakes. Therefore, the points as mentioned earlier formed the basis of argument in Friedrich’s theories which targeted nature of life and human interactions.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. The will to power. Penguin UK, 2017.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Thus spoke Zarathustra. Jester House Publishing, 2016.