The Italian renaissance

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Ch 16. The Renaissance in Quattrocento Italy
1. The proponents of humanism presumed that there are some forms of mutual courtesy such as honesty, integrity and among others. These are regarded to as principles and such moral principles are verified according to their results.
2. The artistic concepts that were highly valued in the Renaissance were paintings, architecture, sculpture, literature and music.
3. The advantage of the Medici family in the 15th-century, in Italy was that it supported the arts that were produced and also supported the growth and progress of the city.
4. One of the advantages of being a court artist is that there is a chance to be a member of the ‘familia’ and a direct personal contact with the prince.
5. Perspective is an art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface to assist in giving a proper impression of their width, depth and height, and position which will allow a view from different points (Gardner & Kleiner, 2013).
6. The significance of the landscape in Donatello’s Saint George and the Dragon helped in the creation of the illusion of space and enhanced placing of figures through the shallowness of the cutting.
7. Gentile da Fabriano used the worldwide Gothic style. The art conforms the style by bridging the gap between the Gothic painting and the new idiom that came up in Florence during the 15th century
8. The sacrifice of Isaac was selected as the theme for the baptistery door content and has been chosen as the city fathers encouraging self-sacrifice in the face of the tense political situation.
9. The endowment of family chapels became dominant in the Renaissance because it was seen as a way of ensuring the well-being of souls of the family ancestors and members and placed in or adjacent to the churches. This is because they created a belief which led to the Renaissance.
10. Function of Or San Michele was to serve as a commercial site for the Florentine trade, and its significance was to show the pride of the trade and act as a reminder that great art often comes due to the competitive climate
Ch. 14. Late Medieval Italy
1. The great schism was what followed after limited silicon churches that have remained constructed explicitly to enhance diminishing of Orthodox communities. This resulted to the Normans conquering the Italy-Greek to control all the religious activities and seize the monitoring of all churches that were Constantinople.
2. The stages involved in Buon fresco method of painting include scaffolding of wall spaces, then the wall was prepared to rough up the place, and Capriccio layer was applied. Mapping of the drawing followed and then intonaco plaster was used. Then the paint was applied while wet and after it dried final touches were done to finish the painting.
3. Guilds were relations of merchants or the artisans who controlled the practice of their craft in a given city or town. Their role was to implement the smooth flow of trade to their members who were self-employed.
4. Black Death is an epidemic that occurred between 1346-1353 killed around 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia. It effects on art is that all the artistic drawings portrayed moment of terrible misfortunes and sarcasm
5. The Byzantine art was introduced in Italy through the formation of the Byzantine Empire in 324 and continued the pan-Mediterranean traditions of the late antique Greco-Roman world. Its effect on Berlinghieri is that they turned to be leading painters who painted the Madonna and another important mosaic of Christ.
6. Humanism influenced art because most artists like Michelangelo was educated in humanist thoughts and the paintings they did were based on their apprenticeships. It influenced what they were painting were they aimed at communicated different ideas.
7. Enrico Scrovegni commissioned fresco cycle and their effects on development of art is that they introduced the arts with spiritual representation
8. Giotto depicted spatial depth and bodily mass through lamination where he used light and shade
9. The importance of Frederick II and Nicola Pisano for the revival of classicism in Italian sculpture was that they started sculpture training which echoed high religious styles.
10. The importance of the Virgin in Siena is that it lead to the salvation of the city from the Florentines in their war with Montaperti in 1260.
Ch 15. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Northern Europe
1. Book of hours is the Christian book with prayers which were to be recited at the canonical hours of the day in the middle Ages. The role of art in the books was to provide decorations to enhance reading.
2. Chartreuse de Champmol was a Carthusian monastery on the outlets of Dijon, France which was founded with a purpose of providing the dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy.
3. The intermingling of the secular and sacred in Flemish art was a way of creating a union which made the secular world to be sacred and it was an attempt to condense a whole spatial reality.
4. An altarpiece is a work of art which is in the form of wood which is usually set above and behind the altar. They often provide decorations in churches, and they show which saint or sacred subject the altar was dedicated.
5. Polyptych is an altarpiece painting with more than three leaves or panels which are joined by hinges or folds. It allowed various arrangements for different views or openings.
6. The Flemish technique of painting is done by first organizing the composition and drawing it, then one formulates the painting surface, from there one transference the drawing to the painting surface and lastly adding the imprimatur layer. Its advantage is that it blends well with surrounding paints and can be left open for longer hours.
7. The significance of portraiture was conveying images of nature in high-quality style. Jan van Eyck’s innovations were much influential, and Netherlander’s painters used his technique and styles in their early times (Rednour, 1994).
8. The printmaking technique employed in this period was the use of oil painting, which started by cutting the wood panels which were then well assembled and when they have well joined the painting was done.
References
Civic Religion and the Countryside in Late Medieval Italy. (n.d.). City and Countryside in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy: Essays Presented to Philip Jones. doi:10.5040/9781472598752.ch-006
Gardner, H., &Kleiner, F. S. (2013). Gardner’s art through the ages: a global history. Australia: SHORT ESSAYS Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Rednour, W. (1994). Anticlericalism in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Peter A. Dykema, Heiko A. Oberman. Renaissance Quarterly,47(2), 411-412. doi:10.2307/2862929
Vi. Florentine Quattrocento Sculptors In Bronze And Their Contemporaries In The Rest Of Italy. (n.d.). Italian Sculpture of the Renaissance. doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674431188.c6

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