Pollution and its Impact on Wildlife
Pollution has over the years emerged as one of the approaches through which people have prompted extreme alterations and extinction of animals, precise wildlife and their habitat. Human beings have considered the air, water, and soil surrounding them as waste repositories and have paid little interest to the ecological concerns of their actions. As a result, animal population, wildlife, are met with a disconcerting array of pollutants that are launched into the environment by human beings both accidentally or intentionally. For that reason, pollution has led to some instances where natural world populations have suffered severe losses or even faced extinction. A best example of animals that have been adversely affected by pollution and faced extinction include the bald eagle, and peregrine falcon, which nearly became extinct. These species nearly became extinct until scientists realized that their reproductive system was failing due to the synthetic chemical DDT (Zubrin, Robert).
Human Impact on the Ecosystem and Animal Extinction
The ecosystem functions well when left alone, exists as a balance. However, any slight changes that take place within the ecosystem have an impact on that balance. At most times, the human is the major contributors to that disturbance. Some of the major human practices that affect the balance include destroying habitats to create more room, as well as clearing land for crops and roads. Pollution by humans is an activity that greatly affects the environment. For that reason, human being could be assumed to be the major contributors and responsible for the extinction of several animal species. When human alter or pollute the environment, there are adverse consequences for the animals that within that environment.
Human Activities and Pollution
The majority of the existing pollution is usually as a result of various human activities. Human actions contribute the pollution of both land and water. Manufacturing industries, as well as agricultural production, are sources of pollutants that affect the soil, air, and water. Pollutants from either of this firms could either be intentionally moved away through the management of waste including deposits removed from the air and waste through the use pollution control strategies. Environmental pollution that results in animal extinction results in increased waste production, and rapid urbanization. The life of the ecosystem is dependent on the environment to provide energy in the form of nutrients and sunlight for animals and other living components.
Animal Species' Reaction to Pollution
Animal species react differently to toxic pollution depending on their sensitivity. For instance, the fish population in lakes of northeastern United States have been found to have zero tolerance to high levels of acidity triggered by acid rain. Unlike the fish population in northeastern lakes, the fish populations in naturally acidic Florida lakes thrive under acidic situations. Based on these two different types of fish populations, the main question that can be drawn from this could what makes it possible for some fish populations to be sensitive to the effects of acidity, while others are tolerant. The only explanation could be based on evolution that makes it possible for some species to enhance or improve their survival chances by adapting to the physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of their environment. However, evolutions only take place over the course of many generations.
How to Solve the Problem
The use of pesticides has been considered as the leading causes of pollution, ever since adverse effects of indiscriminate pesticide usage in the 1970s, farmers have adopted other means of pest control that do not involve the use chemicals (Dhawan, Ashok, and Rajinder, 56). Most of the strategies adopted to reduce pesticide use have a governing philosophy known as integrated pest management (IPM). The use of integrated pest management approach in the agricultural sector is considered as an ecosystem that is made up of pest populations that are influenced by many interacting natural forces. IPM utilizes and combines various techniques that help in minimizing the damages caused by pests. Some of the strategies involved in IPM include biological controls, genetic engineering, and cultural practices (Mamun, and M. Ahmed 11). Genetic engineering is a technique that involves the development of pest-resistant crop varieties. Cultural practices involve the use of farming techniques such as changing planting patterns to interfere with pest life cycles. Biological control involves the use of enhanced populations of natural predators as a means of pest control.
Benefits of Integrated Pest Management
The fundamental principles involved in IPM strategy is centered on the fact that pest populations must be marinated to the minimal level to maintain populations of predators. The use traditional methods of pest control are streamlined towards eliminating pest populations. Successful eradication, conversely, also implies reduced predator populations, a situation that creates an ecologically unbalanced environment and a situation whereby the pest when an extreme amount of a crop is lost. Various government programs have been established to facilitate the adoption of IPM. Successful integration and application of IPM are only possible it is done with ingenuity and adequate knowledge. It also requires a comprehensive understanding of the planting patterns, chemical usage and the population of the predators. It also requires observing and understanding the agricultural ecosystem. There are several benefits attributed to the use of IPM methods they include reduced health risk from chemical exposure and decreased dependence on costly chemicals. Farmers who have comprehensively adopted IPM have stated that they have spent less money on pest control.
The Importance of Regulation
In summary, as illustrated from the above presentation, the population has severe impacts on wildlife population as it results in extinction of some specifies. The magnitude of contamination is universal, with toxic metals, synthetic organic and acid deposition present even within the isolated regions of the earth. Additionally, it is most likely that there are many other adverse effects pollution on wildlife that has not been realized or discovered due to the relativity involved in this area of study. Some types of pollutions could be avoided and mitigated, or those activities that pollute the environment could be modified to reduce or eliminate the amount of pollution occurring. For instance, alternative organochloride pesticides have been developed. Researchers and scientists have also come up with a new generation of pesticides considered as less toxic and rapidly degrade in the environment. Over the years the environment has been treated as an infinite holder by human wastes. Some of the catastrophic environmental effects of such actions and attitude towards the environment have become apparent. The most effective ways through which human beings could reduce pollution and prevent animal extinction could be through creativity, willingness and awareness to help modify the present lifestyles to pose a threat to wildlife and other species. Regulation is a vital approach towards persevering natural resources and eliminating the problem of pollution that leads to animal extinction. Rules and plans should be established to legalize how much and what human beings use in the ecosystem.
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Dhawan, Ashok K., and Rajinder Peshin. "Integrated pest management: concept, opportunities and challenges." Integrated pest management: innovation-development process (2009): 51-81.
Hance, Jeremy. "How Humans Are Driving The Sixth Mass Extinction." The Guardian, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/radical-conservation/2015/oct/20/the-four-horsemen-of-the-sixth-mass-extinction.
Mamun, M. S. A., and M. Ahmed. "Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh." The Journal of Plant Protection Sciences 3.2 (2011): 1-13.
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Zubrin, Robert. "The Truth About DDT And Silent Spring." The New Atlantis, 2017, http://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-truth-about-ddt-and-silent-spring.