The eight stages of psychological development

Erikson's Eight Phases of Psychological Development

Erikson's eight phases of psychological development encompass the whole human lifespan, from early childhood to adulthood. As people age, they have full control of their emotions as well as a sense of self, which has a positive impact on their relationships and those around them throughout their lives. A kid develops a sense of trust throughout the first stage of infancy (from birth to eighteen months) when the guardians give care, affection, and dependability. If care is denied at this period, the child will develop mistrust later in life (Newman & Newman, 2017).  At the age of two to three years in stage two, the child develops personal control and sense of independence, which consequently leads to an autonomy feeling. At stage three (3-5 years), asserting control over the environment is necessary, although it should be extended to maintain good relations with those around. Stage four, (6-11 years), a proper sense of self and emotional control increases the sense of competence, thus improving the relationship with other people (Cohen & Sherman, 2014).

The Impact of Personality Identity and Self on Social Relationships

At the adolescence stage, personality identity and sense of self not only help the teenagers stay true to themselves but also have a positive social relationship with others. The sixth stage, 19-40 years, self-realization cements a loving and intimate relationship with the wider public. Between 40-65 years, the realization of one self and taking control of their emotions gives them the zeal to nurture the things and people outlast them in a positive manner (Newman & Newman, 2017). The last stage of maturity, integrity is a significant factor, where the elders are supposed to appreciate their past if at all they controlled their emotions and related well with others in the past (Cohen & Sherman, 2014).


Cohen, G. L., & Sherman, D. K. (2014). The psychology of the change: Self-affirmation and social psychological intervention. Annual review of psychology, 65, 333-371.

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2017). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.

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