Role or Professional Area Chronic Care Model Component Services Provided Motivation Reimbursable by Insurance Education Needed Professional Organizations City Planner
Decision support Provides the plot that shows the best use of land and other geographical resources to promote public health. Ensuring that land and resources used do not pose a health threat to the community.
N/A Degree in urban planning, environmental planning. American public works association and American planning association. Data Analyst
Decision support, clinical information system Providing an analysis concerning trends and patterns in public health. Gathering and integrating data. Ensuring that the public is aware of the adjustment in the health sector. N/A Bachelor of Science in Health Informatics or Statistics.
Health Data and Analytics Association, National Association of Health Data Organizations. Epidemiologist or Infectious Disease Health system Discovering the environmental factors that affect health and provide the scientific basis for prevention of the disease (Haveman, Jansen, Oers, & Veer, 2011). To improve community efforts in the promotion of health and prevention of diseases.
N/A Degree in Infection control epidemiology American College of Epidemiology.
Food and Drug Inspector Decision support Provides inspection for drugs and food in the community to offer safety to consumers. Motivated by the urge of safe products for human consumption. N/A Degree in sciences National Department of Agriculture, National Food and Drug Administration
Health Department City, County, and State Decision support and regulation Provides technical and financial support to relevant agencies to promote community health. Elimination of occupational and environmental hazards. N/A N/A N/A Health Inspector Decision support Inspects workplace to ensure the compliance with safety, health, and environmental regulation. They are also responsible for designing programs to prevent injury and diseases to workers as well as damage to the environment. Ensuring that the community is protected from injury as much as possible. N/A Bachelors degree Health inspector is under the National Association of Health Professionals Health Policy Advisor Clinical information and decision support. Offer public health consultancy to both the local and the federal government. Assist the government in making accurate and informed decision for the public health. N/A Bachelors degree. The advisor is under the National Association of Advisors for Health Professions Health Policy Specialist Decision support and clinical information. Assist the government and nonprofit healthcare industry in giving people the most effective health insurance coverage. Motivated by the urge to increase the number of people covered by the health insurance N/A Bachelors degree Under the American Public Health Association. Lawyer
Decision support Helps in the legal issues and disputes in the health facilities. Ideally, the Lawyer is motivated by the urge of ensuring that people and health stakeholders understand the law and legal requirements. N/A Doctoral or professional degree in law
American Bar Association. Lobbyist
Clinical information system Provide advice based on the policies, political trends in the area of public health and public participation. Ensuring the existence of an informed community. N/A Must be registered as a lobbyist by the appropriate governing body.
National Association of State Lobbyists. Marketing
Decision support Marketer brings marketing techniques that are essential for health promotion, injury prevention, environmental protection and community mobilization (Cheng, Kotler, & Lee, 2009). Ensuring health promotion in the community. N/A Bachelors degree in marketing and communication strategies American Marketing Association.
Patient Care Director Health system Provides executive-level supervision and leadership programs for the welfare of the patients. Urge to exercise a directive role in the management of the health facility.
N/A Postsecondary degree in nursing, organizational management or business administration from accredited schools. American Association Of health Administrative Management. Politician
Decision support Provides inputs in policy-making processes in the promotion of public health.
Motivated by the existence of a healthy community.
N/A Degree in political science N/A Public Health
Decision support Public health officers provide support to minimize health and safety hazards. Motivated by the existence of a safe community. N/A State licensure or state certification upon completion of a relevant science course. World Federation of Public Health Association. Other (Identify Which)
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Table Definition
Health inspector is an essential component of community health care since it gives guidelines for inspection of various environmental hazards. The interaction between healthcare inspect in the community healthcare setting can be realized when the inspector is in pursuit of collecting relevant information from the data analyst. The accuracy of data from the analyst, in this case, would determine the effectiveness of the inspection.
The effectiveness of health inspectors duties can be fostered by the ability a good interaction with other colleagues such as the food and drug inspector. This is because of the availability of firsthand information from these colleagues. Additionally, a cohesive relationship with the Department of health would mean improved facilitation of the inspection programs.
Cheng, H., Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2009). Social marketing for public health. Jones and Bartlet Publishers.
Haveman, A., Jansen, S., Oers, J., & Veer, P. V. (2011). Epidemiology in public health practice. American journal of epidemiology, 871-872.
Primary Health Care Roles and Functions Table
Role or Professional Area Chronic Care Model Component Services Provided Motivation Reimbursable by Insurance Education Needed Professional Organizations Community Health Nurse Management support and delivery system. Teach the community about health behaviors to promote wellbeing. The nurse is responsible for developing strategies to improve the health of the community. Additionally, the nurse is responsible for collecting data concerning the health issues and discusses it with members of the community.
In this case, nurses are motivated by the need for the patients who still require home health nursing.
N/A Certified health education specialist The nurses are required to be under American Nurses Association or the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators. Dentist
A dentist is responsible for health delivery system design and decision support.
Provides information on dental and diet choices that influence oral health. Dentists also diagnose dental problems. The motivation is derived in the urge to help peoples oral health. In most case, dental insurance is used to cater for these services.
Dentists are required to be graduates from accredited dental schools and licensed for the operation. Dentists may be under the following: American Dental Association, American Dental Education Association as well as American Association of public health dentistry. Exercise Physiologist Self-management support Develop fitness and exercise programs that are important in allowing the patient to recover from the chronic diseases as well as the body composition and flexibility. Ensuring that patients achieve a higher quality of health. N/A Bachelor of science in physiology. American Society of Exercise Physiologist or the American Kinesiology Association and the Clinical Exercise Physiology. Health Coach
Self-management support. Advices the client on relevant programs to maintain health goals. Ensuring individual achieve their health goals. N/A A minimum requirement is a certificate to carry out health coaching activities.
International Association of Health Coaches.
Health Education Self-management support. They provide information to the clients on different behaviors that can be adopted to promote good health and wellness. To produce a healthier community. N/A Bachelors degree in public health education Society for Public Health Education. Preventive Medicine Provider Self-management Provide counsel to patients on diets, hygiene, and preventive healthcare.
Motivated by the urge to provide the best preventive measures to healthcare.
N/A Graduate from accredited medical school upon completion of residency training and practical exams. Standardized by national Licensure examination such as the United States Medical licensing examination (Owlguru.com n.d). Registered Dietitian Self-management Assess clinical, biochemical, dietary concerns and feeding skills as well the intervention plans to promote wellness (Brauer, 2010). Planning appropriate interventions for the wellness of the patients. N/A Bachelors degree in dietetics or nutrition from accredited medical school. Accreditation Council for Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND) School Health Education Decision support Provides relevant information when it comes to adopting health behavior that can have lifelong consequences. Ensuring an informed community to promote health. N/A Bachelors degree in health education, public health education or public health promotion. American School Health Association Social Services Decision support Works with the people to assess, resolve or lessen health-related issues.
Motivated by the belief in rights and dignity of individuals. N/A Degree in community development, counseling or health education.
National Association of Social workers. Other (Identify Which)
A health coach can be integrated with other colleagues in the primary care setting in their pursuit to increase patient’s knowledge on healthy lifestyles. The health manager can foster this integration by bringing the related services together to achieve maximum health interventions.
Brauer, P. (2010). Moving Forward: Role of the Registered Dietitian in Primary Health Care A Canadian Perspective. Retrieved from ICDA: http://www.internationaldietetics.org/Newsletter/Vol17Issue1/National-Association-Reports/Moving-Forward–Role-of-the-Registered-Dietitian-i.aspx
Owlguru.com. (n.d.). How To Become A Preventive Med Physician: Degree and Education Requirements. Retrieved from Owlguru.com: http://www.owlguru.com/career/preventive-medicine-physicians/requirements/
Tertiary Health Care Roles and Functions Table
Role or Professional Area Chronic Care Model Component Services Provided Motivation Reimbursable by Insurance Education Needed Professional Organizations Administration Health information system Responsible for planning, coordinating and directing healthcare services.
To provide a comprehensive organization of healthcare functions and facilities. In most cases, their duties are included in insurance claims
A bachelors degree in healthcare administration or the healthcare management. The administrator can be under the Healthcare Administration Association or the American Association of Health Care Administrative Management. Billing and Finance Clinical information system Responsible for billing and patients finances as well as handling of insurance issues. Motivated to provide accurate financial records and guidance which promotes healthcare practices. N/A The minimum requirement for this position is the bachelors degree in finance. The individual may be under the American Medical Billing Association or the Healthcare Management Association.
Coding Analyst Health information system Coding Analyst processes medical records handles insurance claims and denials as well as insuring reimbursement
Motivated to help with proper reimbursement.
N/A The analyst must be accredited by AHIMA The coding analyst is the Professional Association for Healthcare Coding Specialist
Credentialing Coordinator Clinical information system Focuses on the verification of the credential of the healthcare professionals as required by the state or as per the state compliance. Is driven by the motive that all employ in the health organization has the proper and relevant credentials
N/A Bachelors Degree National Association of medical staff Customer Service Representative Clinical information systems They give information to the customer regarding their query as well as handling complaints. Caring and meeting customers needs. N/A A minimum requirement is high school diploma in communication and customer service.
National Customer Service Association. Dietitian Decision support Dietician gives information to the patients on what to eat to improve and promote health. Ensuring that patients are aware of healthy diets that help in health promotion. Yes Bachelor of Science in Dietaries and nutrition. Academy Of Nutrition and Dietetics. Engineer Decision support and clinical information system. Design and develop a facility with the required devices and healthcare specialist rooms. Ensure that the facility provides adequate facilitation to patient care.
N/A Bachelor of Science in Engineering. American Society of Healthcare Engineers. Facilities Management Clinical information system and decision support. Integrate people and the process to improve the functionality of the facility.
Ensuring that the healthcare facilities run in a smooth, organized manner to provide the best care for all patients.
N/A Bachelors Degree in facility management. International Facility Management association. Food Services Decision support Provide food and beverage services to people in the health facility. Ensuring that people in healthcare are fed appropriately.
It is required when the meals are taken from the hospital at the time of stay. Degree in hospitality or nutrition. Diploma in catering National Association for Catering Education.
Health Economics Decision support Assessing the economic impacts of health-related issues in the society.
Motivated by the need to reduce the economic impact. Reimbursable Bachelor of science in economics/ health economics American Society of Health Economists Housekeeping Self-management Provide quality care for inpatients (Shinde, Potdar, & Shete, 2015). Patient satisfaction Reimbursed Diploma in housekeeping International Executive Housekeepers Association. Human Resources Health system, delivery system design Provide a framework to integrate the human resources in instituting wellness programs (Neil, 2016). Improving the interest of the employees in the well-being of the patients. N/A Bachelors degree in Human Resource Management. American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration Information Management Clinical information system Maintains stores and retrieves patients health information (Hicks, 2017). Safeguarding patients medical records. N/A Bachelor of Science in Health Information Management
American Health Information Management Association. Laboratory Health system Provides medical laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic information. Giving accurate information from the analysis Reimbursed Certificate or associate degree program in medical laboratory sciences American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science. Marketing Clinical information system Promotions of the health practices to growth orientation Promoting health practices N/A Degree in marketing Society for Healthcare Strategy and Market Development Medical Records Clinical information Provides patients history that allows for understanding the current diagnosis and status.
Improving patients care through innovations. N/A Certificate or associate degree in health information technology. American Health Information Management Association Medicine Self-management Provides medicine under the supervision of the pharmacist. Ensuring correct medicine are given following the prescriptions
Reimbursed Diploma in dispensing or pharmacy National Pharmacy Association
Nursing Self-management Provides essential services in the promotion, maintenance, and restoration wellbeing.
Promotion of health N/A Bachelor of science in nursing/ Bachelor of health science programs American Association of Nurse Practitioners. Quality Improvement Specialist Health system Responsible for coordination key quality improvement activities. Conduct performance assessment with other organizations involved.
Quality healthcare services N/A Bachelor’s degree in the health-related field.
National Association for Healthcare Quality Pharmacy Self-management Influence the selection of drugs and dosage regimens to monitor individual compliance and therapeutical response to drugs. Minimizing the wrong dosage.
Reimbursed Doctor of Pharmacy American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
Physical Therapy Self-management Provides prevention, treatment, and management of the impairments as well as other healthcare needs of the patient.
Improving healthcare quality and outcomes. Reimbursed Degree in Doctor of Physical Therapy. Background knowledge from bachelor of science in anatomy, physiology, and biology.
American Physical Therapy Association Radiology Health system Provide immunization, screening to reduce morbidity and mortality in the population Quality care improvement Reimbursed Degree program from accredited medical school in radiology and radiotherapy
American Society of Radiologic Technologists Risk Management Decision support Analysis of financial risks, disaster recovery planning and the identification of the insurance cover for the health facility. Improve disaster management N/A Education background includes a degree in business management, insurance, clinical management, and law.
American Society for Healthcare Risk Mangement
Security Decision support provides safety of the people and the medical facility Ensuring safety N/A Post-secondary education, bachelors level in criminal justice and humanities International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety Social Work Decision support, clinical information system Provides psychosocial assessment and other social issues including financial problems of the patients. Providing social support to the patients N/A Bachelors degree in social sciences/ Social work Professional Association of Healthcare workers
Hicks, J. (2017, June 27). Ensuring Accuracy, Accessibility, and Privacy of Health Information. Retrieved from verywell: https://www.verywell.com/responsibilities-of-health-information-management-2317589
Neil, K. (2016, March 24). Interview with Kelly Neil: The Importance of Human Resources in Healthcare. Retrieved from Aldrich: https://aldrichadvisors.com/kelly-donahue-human-resources/
Shinde, M., Potdar, N., & Shete, S. (2015). Job Satisfaction among Housekeeping Workers in Tertiary Care Hospital. International journal of science and research, 150-153.