Table of Cognitive Development

This is the first stage of Piaget's intellectual growth, in which schemes are focused primarily on people's insights and activities. This stage also starts at birth for approximately 2 years (Ormrod 29). In this scenario, Ormod (29) states that the children cannot think about the things they use. Indeed, children also focus on the things they see at that moment. In the sensorimotor stage children start using symbols to represent events and physical objects as mental entities.
The second phase of Piaget’s cognitive progression where the children showcase potentials to think regarding varied tasks and items beyond the immediate view; however, they do not reason in an adult-like or logical way (Ormrod 30). Extensive and pretended play. To help foster this concept, the children enact imagery scenarios with assigned roles and plots such as mommy, superman, and daddy.
Concrete operations stage It is the third stage of regarding cognitive development established by Piaget where the children have an adult-like reasoning with logic but limited to showcasing concrete reality (Ormrod 30). Children can apply the concept of conservation Here, the children realize that regardless of addition or taking away of “nothing,” the amount remains the same even with alteration of shape or arrangement. This can be reinforced by water in a glass transferred into a bucket or plate and the children questioned of the volume.
Formal operations stage The fourth stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory where there are processes of logical reasoning, which are applied to the abstract ideologies and concrete objects. An example is when children develop realism The children are provided with circumstances and asked to offer alternatives
Assimilation This is the process whereby children deal with objects or events consistently using existing schemes. Assimilation of a new teddy bear by a child that will help him/her to practice the scheme of putting things into the mouth. This can be enhanced by modifying the schemes or forming novel schemes to aid in the assimilation procedure.
Accommodation Accommodation has reference to as a method of dealing with novel objects or events through modification of existing schemes or establishing new ones. Modifying existing schemes This can be facilitated by children changing schemes from one to the next; for instance where a child cannot apply the snake scheme and adopts the salamander scheme simply because the scheme requires legs.
Equilibration The process of changing from equilibrium to disequilibrium and then reverting back to the state of equilibrium (Ormrod 28).
Role of diversity This is the function executed by the differences in abilities among individuals including personality and intelligence at specific ages within specific cultural or gender groups (Ormrod 118). Problems with complex levels of knowledge and thought This can be supported by the beads problem where a child is provided by beads of different colors to draw them to support their statements of inconsistency.
Vygotsky Social construction of meaning A situation where adults aid the children in drawing meaning out of events and object that they encounter. It also termed as mediated learning. A talk about prehistoric exhibition. The adult helps the child to have an understanding of the past in a museum by explaining the past events.
Mediated learning Mediated learning is the technique through which a discussion arises where an adult helps a child to derive sense from an event that is mutually experienced (Ormrod 41). Encouraging children to define events that took place before they were born. This can be illustrated by adults helping the children to understand history.
Internalization This is a process where leaners progressively incorporate socially constructed activities into their internal cognitive processes (Ormrod 39). Engaging in certain activities because of the external consequences such as completing schoolwork to be praised and avoid punishment. Can be assessed by offering autonomy towards decision-making among the children.
Inner speech Depicts inner speech as a technique of talking to with an aim of guiding oneself mentally as opposed to loud. It is introspective thinking to give oneself self-mediated direction (Ormrod 39). Directing oneself in various activities It can be fostered by increasing using cognitive tools such as events, objects, problems, and tasks.
Scaffolding This is a support mechanism, which aids learners to perform challenging tasks such as those that are in their region of proximal development (Ormrod 42). Developing plans The students or learners require help in the development of plans to complete novel tasks; for instance, breaking the plan into small activities for easier completion.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) It is a variety of tasks that are performed by learners while being helped by others; however, these learners cannot perform these activities independently (Ormrod 39). The apple-tarts problem during an opening case study. Allowing children of equal abilities to work jointly to solve the apple-tarts problem will help them develop and master skills
Role of diversity This is the purpose delivered by the differences observed among individuals of varied social groups. Allowing children to acquire varied skills that are within their zone of proximal development This can be attained by teaching different tasks since the learners have a variety of potentials where some might fail to accomplish tasks that others are well-equipped to handle 
Work Cited
Ormrod, Jeanne, E. Educational psychology : developing learners. Boston: Pearson, 2014. Print.

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