# Rear-Wing Stalling Systems- Formula Car Aerodynamics

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According to Newton’s laws of motion, force is believed to be the cause of the motion. In certain cases, various means of arriving or measuring momentum are used. The method of measuring momentum is favoured because it does not depend on complex forces of mixing between objects, which are often unknown. The section would then cover the simple quantity approach used by a given particle, as well as the application of Newton’s second law using momentum, and how energy conservation in a particle is possible. After this, this approach can be used to generalize the method of arbitrary collection of extended properties (Capata, 179). When an object with a mass m traveling with a velocity v, the momentum acting linearly on that object will be given by

Since momentum is a vector quantity, its definition is the multiplication of mass which is an intrinsic characteristic of an object, and the velocity which relies on the motion of the object. The unit for measuring momentum is. In newton’s law, when a particle has a zero force acting on it, it will be always with the same momentum.

The momentum of the car is reduced by the air friction. The velocity of the car is higher than the velocity of the air streams. This relative motion creates drag which reduces the momentum of the car. The design of the car is such that the viscous drag is minimized by the profile of the car wings and the rear parts of the car. The possibility of the eddy currents is reduced by making the car streamlined.

Analysis

In Newton’s law of motion, the momentum of an object is given as Where k can be further calculated using the product rule for derivatives: . Because most of the time the mass tend to remain constant while the motion of the object keeps changing, the part with will be zero and the equation will remain , where a is the acceleration of the object while in motion.

The aspect of the racing car that crucial is the downward force created as the car runs along the track. The down force, inducing devices, is incorporated in the body of the car for its advantage. Figure 1 tries to illustrate the concept of downforce. The aerofoil has a shape and an angle of attack such that if it moves to the left, air particles move faster on the lower surface than the upper one. The low-pressure zone is created at the lower surface of the foil and high-pressure zone at the upper part. The resultant force is a force that pushes the foil downwards, hence, the race car. The down force also brings viscous drag as the wings experience relative motion with the air stream. The viscous drag is smaller than the downforce. The smaller the drag, the less the amount of fuel used by the car.

Figure 1: Pressure difference in aerofoil

The profile of the aerodynamic wing or foils is designed to give a particular ratio of the lift to the drag force. The foil accelerates the air on the lower surface when producing the downward force. If the flow of the air is accelerated further by the upper side of the wing, then the upward force is created which makes the car or the aerofoil lighter. This is shown in the figure below.

Fig 1: Illustration of the wing theory

However, in some instances, for example in a rocket, it will be ejecting a substantial amount of fuel thus the mass will be changing; hence, the original equation is used in this case. The angle of attack of the wing determines the resultant force generated. The increase of the angle of attack leads to the loss of the downward force created; hence, an aerodynamic grip is generated.

Figure 2: Illustration of the angle of attack of the wings

Third law of Newton: action and reaction forces

When two bodies meet due to the force acting on them towards each other, there will be a force called reaction produced by the object after the collision which is equal to the force that was acting on them but in the opposite direction. The wing loses the downward force when it stalls; hence, the drag reduces. The bigger the wing angle, the larger the angle of attack hence the greater the downward force (Chen, 120).

The stalled condition of the wing is due to the F-duct. When the driver releases the knee form the hole, the airflow passes to the cockpit, and the rear part of the wing flow is reattached and this leads to the downward force. The car can, therefore, lap with its wings to generate the required force for braking or negotiating a corner. This is illustrated in the figure below.

Figure 3: F-duct

The analysis of this two forces is when the momentum of both objects is taken as positive, hence; . This means the force only from the other object is the force of the other object. The force is not necessarily at a microscopic distance from objects but sometimes it might be at a long distance depending on the magnitude of the force towards the objects. The total of the forces since they are in the opposite direction and equal is zero. Therefore; . To justify the equation, the momentum of the objects must be constant all the time. In this situation, it is said that there is conservation of momentum and, hence, the energy of the objects. The conservation of momentum energy of the object after the collision is potentially within them (Chen, 120).

The Newton’s third law of motion is also applied in the design of the rear wing. The race car experiences fluid resistance when it moves down along the track. The surface of the rear part surface comes into contact with the air. The resistance is caused by the relative motion between the air stream and the moving car. The fluid friction is a function of the aerodynamic drag. The aerodynamic drag results in the loss of the momentum and, hence, increases the fuel cost. The rear part of the car is designed in such a way that there are no eddies to minimize turbulence of the air streams.

Conclusion

The newton’s laws of motion play an important role in the principle momentum energy. It clearly through second and third law outline how momentum is arrived at. Furthermore, it shows the relationship of the force due to the moment and the property of the object poses.

The design of the F-ducts of the racing car uses the principles of linear motion in relation to the conservation of the momentum. The car design aims at minimum fuel consumption and attains the required speeds by the use of the aerodynamic principles.

Works Cited

Capata, Roberto, and Leone Martellucci. “Aerodynamic Brake for Formula Cars.” World Journal of Mechanics 5.10 (2015): 179.

Chen, Mei Nan, et al. “Computer-Aided Front and Rear Wings Aerodynamic Design of a Formula SAE Racing Car.” Applied Mechanics and Materials. Vol. 120. Trans Tech Publications, 2012.

Ehirim, Obinna. Optimal Diffuser Design for Formula SAE Race Car Using an Innovative Geometry Buildup and CFD Simulation Setup with On-Track Testing Correlation. No. 2012-01-1169. SAE Technical Paper, 2012.

Toet, Willem. “Aerodynamics and aerodynamic research in Formula 1.” The Aeronautical Journal 117.1187 (2013): 1-26.

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