Investigating Residential Isolation and Education Disparities

Quillian, Lincoln investigates the role of residential isolation in the formation of education winners and losers among adolescent students by accounting for participants based on race or ethnicity, family background, and metropolitan region characteristics such as poverty rate and race or ethnicity arrangement. The author demonstrates in the paper that students reared in low-income families have lower rates of success. They have low chances of graduating high school than when brought up in a metropolitan region with a higher level of isolating poor families from others. Also, the black students brought up in metropolitan areas with the highest level of racial isolation have lower rates of graduating high school compared to black students brought up in metropolitan regions with low rates of racial isolation (Quillian, Lincoln). In this case, Quillian, Lincoln point of the argument is poor and black individuals up in metropolitan regions with highest rates of income and racial isolation is directly related with lower grades or rating in completing high school (Quillian, Lincoln).

The Study on Educational Achievement and Metropolitan Isolation

Quillian, Lincoln research uses participants of more than two thousand and five hundred participants in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to further his arguments. Here, the author tracked and examined the respondents with regular re-interviewing from the age of 14 to 26. He analyzes educational achievement of the participants at the age of 26 across all the classifications of race or ethnicity, family income, and metropolitan isolation or segregation. In the study, the author specifically puts participants' metropolitan isolation at age of 14 into a statistical model that predicts high school and college graduation.

The Racial and Income Achievement Gap in the United States of America

In the United States of America, racial and income achievement gap refers to educational disparities in racial or ethnicity groups and family income rates. Based on Logan, John R. et al. and Quintana, Stephen M., and Lana Mahgoub research work, poor and black students are most likely to receive low grading or drop out of school than students from high family incomes and other races especially whites. The authors seem to agree that economic segregation facing black and Hispanic students represents quite a wide range of trends, such as high rate of poverty since the period of great recession, increased economic issues in many metropolitan areas leading to poor neighborhoods and poor efforts of promoting racial economic integration in educational institutions. Due to this, most poor and black students affected by these factors struggle in their academic achievement leading to a low rate of graduating high school.

The Influence of Social Class on Education at Berkeley High School

Sacks, Peter. “BERKELEY HIGH AND THE POLITICS OF EXCLUSION.” Tearing down the Gates: Confronting the Class Divide in American Education, 1st ed., University of California Press, 2007, pp. 63-78,

In chapter three of Sacks, Peter book, the main point outlined is the struggle for existence by public schools. Here, Sacks, Peter uses a micro-level point of view on analyzing the origin of social class and education. The author uses his journalism background to intersect these issues by devoting this chapter as “Berkeley High and the Politic of Exclusions’ as the case study in the influence of racial or ethnicity and social class on the development of small institutions within institutions. Author’s journalism background is evident in this chapter as it applies opinion quotes from the teachers, administration and the parents to provide more important insight to the issue of social class that is deeply rooted in Berkeley High School. For example, a teacher at the school uses the experience of classroom activities such as sitting or standing in response to the various social class orientation of the students. Here, there was no student who stood up to identify themselves as upper or lower class but almost all the students stood up to identify themselves as middle class. For this reason, the author emphasized that the myths and beliefs of the middle class are deeply rooted among the young generation in the United States of America.

Social Class and Academic Achievement

Bécares, Laia, and Naomi Priest and Fredericks, M A, and P Mundy state that social class among teens and youths is increasingly being recognized as the main factor that contributes to academic achievement. However, the studies reveal that there is the presence of little consensus involving the measurement and conceptualization of social class in regard to student academic performance. The authors agree on measures such as parental social class contributes to the student’s class and eventually their academic performance. Moreover, the majority of the students are avoiding being aligned to a specific class based on their parental class which directly contributes to the self-esteem of the individual and good academic performance.

The Process of Achievement Gaps in Academic Performance

Ochoa, Gilda L. Academic Profiling: Latinos, Asian Americans, and the Achievement Gap. University of Minnesota Press, 2013,

In introductory, and chapter 1 to 4 of the Ochoa, Gilda L book, she focuses on the racial achievement gap in academic achievements. This issue has become common in efforts of ensuring equality in education reforms. In this book, Ochoa, Gilda L looks beyond the issues of education products and mainly focuses on the process that contributes to achievement and opportunity gaps in academic performance. Here, Ochoa, Gilda L outlines the process such as social support and availability or access to resources are strongly influenced by various family and school factors and experiences that in turn contributes to student’s low performance. She organizes the book into three sections by applying the macro-meso-microsystem to strongly outline how neoliberal policies can limit students’ access to reading resources and social support. Due to this, Ochoa, Gilda L outlines the whole process that contributes to achievement gaps and discovers all the means that has continued to affect students.

The Relationship Between Family Support, Income, and Academic Performance

According to Chang, Sang-soo, and Reardon, Sean F the relationship between family support, income rate and academic performance has continued to change over the last five decades. Here, the authors investigate the increased level of family socioeconomic background and academic achievement ingredient. Though the studies cover two separate countries, the authors agree on a number of issues such as family income directly correlates with the students’ performance, with the students from poor families performing poor in their studies. Additionally, the level of parental education contributes to the student’s performance. Reardon, Sean F states that the relationship between family education background and the student’s achievement has always remained stable over the last five decades.

Works Cited

Bécares, Laia, and Naomi Priest. “Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach”. PLOS ONE, vol 10, no. 10, 2015, p. e0141363. Public Library of Science (PLoS), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141363.

Chang, Sang-soo. “Widening Gap: The Increasing Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Status on Children’S Academic Achievement in Korea”. Korean Journal of Sociology, vol 50, no. 5, 2016, p. 107. Korean Sociological Association, doi:10.21562/kjs.2016.

Fredericks, M A, and P Mundy. “The Relationship between Social Class, Average Grade in College, Medical College Admission Test Scores, and Academic Achievement of Students In A Medical School”. Academic Medicine, vol 42, no. 2, 1967, pp. 126-33. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), doi: 10.1097/00001888-196702000-00004.

Logan, John R. et al. “The Geography of Inequality”. Sociology of Education, vol 85, no. 3, 2012, pp. 287-301. SAGE Publications, doi: 10.1177/0038040711431588.

Ochoa, Gilda L. Academic Profiling: Latinos, Asian Americans, and the Achievement Gap. University of Minnesota Press, 2013,

Quillian, Lincoln. “Does Segregation Create Winners And Losers? Residential Segregation and Inequality in Educational Attainment”. Social Problems, vol 61, no. 3, 2014, pp. 402-426. Oxford University Press (OUP), doi:10.1525/sp.2014.12193.

Quintana, Stephen M., and Lana Mahgoub. “Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology’s Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities”. Theory into Practice, vol 55, no. 2, 2016, pp. 94-103. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/00405841.2016.1148985.

Reardon, Sean F. “The Widening Academic Achievement Gap between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations | Center for Education Policy Analysis”. Cepa.Stanford.Edu, 2017,

Sacks, Peter. “BERKELEY HIGH AND THE POLITICS OF EXCLUSION.” Tearing down the Gates: Confronting the Class Divide in American Education, 1st ed., University of California Press, 2007, pp. 63–78,

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