According to previous research, Prostate Cancer affects two percent of men between the ages of 15 and 45. Over the last 30 years or so, the disease’s prevalence has been steadily increasing. The problem arises from a lack of understanding and awareness of the disease, its causes, and risk factors among young males (Garner, 2011). Male patients are more concerned than female patients about the risk of developing prostate cancer after a Vasectomy. Vasectomy is the procedure in which a man’s deferens is cut off, the cut ends folded back, and the amount ends bound off to prevent sperm from the man’s testicles from leaking out of the penis or into the urethra. The procedure is undertaken to curb pregnancy with the sexual function completely intact. Recently, several cases of fear have been reported whereby most men are reluctant to undergo the process due to the notion that lead to prostate cancer (Kiciński et al, 2011). This research paper aims at unearthing whether vasectomy could trigger prostate cancer among males who undergo the process.
Significance of the Study
Most men in the United States (U.S), approximately 45%, prefer vasectomy over other male contraceptive procedures because of its effectiveness and efficiency in controlling birth through prevention of pregnancy (Siddiqui et al, 2014). The prevailing inquiry proves to be quite significant to the mentioned category of men besides other men worldwide who would wish to undergo the procedure as it will assist them in realizing informed decisions. The case is because vasectomy as an option and a choice can endanger their lives if its association to prostate cancer is proven to be true. Due to little knowledge and awareness concerning the truth of the matter, the nursing practice problem has not been clarified. As such, many males may choose not to undergo the process and select other contraceptive options. Therefore, various agencies concerned with population control, together with the government, is seeking for information on vasectomy and prostate cancer risk from scholars and healthcare professionals. In a nutshell, this research aims at clarifying the issue so as to create knowledge and awareness and promote health safety for all males.
Purpose of the Study
Vasectomy, a common male contraceptive form in the U.S has raised a lot of questions concerning its relation with prostate cancer risks. The purpose of this study is to find out whether vasectomy is related with prostate cancer. It aims at determining whether men who undergo the procedure of vasectomy have a high risk of suffering from prostate cancer. A comparison is made to male individuals who do not undergo vasectomy. Generally, the study tries to find a solution to most males’ fears and misinformation on whether vasectomy leads to prostate cancer disease.
The research questions for this study can be formulated as follows:
Do men who undergo the procedure of vasectomy have a high risk of suffering from prostate cancer?
What population of male individuals who practice vasectomy is diagnosed with the prostate cancer disease?
Is the alleged increase in prostate cancer incidence because of the differences in other cancer treatments received and sexual hormones?
This study employs several inquiry methodologies. The first one is the follow-up method whereby observations would be conducted for prostate cancer patients for 20 years. The sample gradually increased from 6,000 to 12,000 participants. The participants are first clearly informed about the methodology and purpose of the study as well as the benefits they would achieve from the study. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires to pinpoint the number of vasectomized participants. The follow-up method has proved to be useful in this study due to the longer period involved. After data was collected, it was analyzed using NVivo data analysis software due to its higher degree of accuracy. Most of the males participating voluntarily portrayed good behavior throughout this study. This state of events greatly aided in smooth research activities. Questionnaires were properly stored so as to facilitate comparison in data analysis and for future reference as well.
One qualitative method used in this study is the Q-methodology. This method purposes on exploring the understandings and meanings that are constructed by young males concerning testicular self-examination (TSE) and testicular cancer (TC). Both online and conventional forms of Q-sorting are employed. A sample of thirty males of age range between eighteen and forty three filled out questionnaires along a continuum of “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. The statements denoted a vast range of view point regarding the causes, symptoms, popular myths, risk factors, and emotional consequences of testicular cancer. Factor analysis of the thirty Q-sorts showed that the male patients are affected from four perspectives namely; knowledge, cautions, misleading factors, and media influence. The test results indicate that young men are more likely to believe what they hear from other people and the media regarding the disease as compared to knowledge reached from self-screening. The case indicates that previous research has not been successful in determining the frequency to which male persons participate in self-screening tests.
Another qualitative study conducted by Alqahtani (2015) identified the risk factors for prostate cancer besides vasectomy as family cancer history, age, race and ethnicity, smoking, obesity, cholesterol consumption, hypertension, and alcohol abuse. The analyses are unbiased since they are not subject to detection bias, and thus, the results can be said to be useful. This study also employs several quantitative approaches to address the nursing practice problem in question. Cox proportional hazard models are used to approximate the relative risk (RR) of getting prostate cancer by vasectomy patients. The findings of this research indicated that vasectomy is linked with increased relative risk that could result in high-grade illness and lethal disease.
The independent variable for this study is vasectomy while the independent variables include prostate cancer, sexual hormones, and other cancer-related diseases. Throughout this study, instances of bias are kept as minimal as possible. Data and information is compiled by teams of data analysis experts. Test results are compared with research undertaken by other researchers to undermine bias. This research also ensures equality in participation and males from different ethnic, economic and social backgrounds are called upon to participate. The age limits for the study also involved men who are at a very high chance of acquiring prostate cancer in the society today, that is, between 15 to 45 years of age.
Results of the Study
The study found out that the procedure of to a small extent heightens the risks of acquiring prostate cancer. Not all prostate cancers are induced by vasectomy. However, it did not impact on the risks of the localized disease. The inquiry also found out that the effects of vasectomy were not solely dependent on the patents’ sex hormones or any other form of cancer treatments patients could be receiving. The study covered quite a considerable population of the U.S citizens, the outcomes offer a clear representation of the situation that applies to many males. The results are valid since data was correctly acquired and presented. The long period of study and the effective strategies employed by the study means there was no bias to the results. Several other techniques such as efficient data analysis tools were also integrated to ensure unbiased and useful results. Therefore, I have strong confidence in the findings of this research (Garner, 2011).
The results of this study are presented in a coherent and logical manner such that its interpretations and the impact of vasectomy on prostate cancer is clearly defined and stated. The test results have a great impact on the nursing profession. Nurses can use the research findings to guide and advise men on the best forms of contraceptives they can use. The fact that vasectomy, to a lesser extent, can lead to prostate cancer can help nurses in providing professional advice. Nurses and healthcare professionals can also use the study results to conduct health education. They can explain to the males that not all cases of prostate cancer are caused by vasectomy, and therefore, they should not worry or fear, or completely disown the procedure.
The study, however, has its own limitations that limited the accuracy of its results. The major limitation is the prolonged study period, which may have led to loss of data especially data which is documented in the questionnaires. Data may also have been mistakenly omitted or duplicated while being transferred from the questionnaires to the data analysis software. Since this study encouraged all kinds of people to participate, some participants also experienced language problems due to different ethnicities. Few of the participants failed to complete the Q-sorting activity due to unavoidable circumstances and this was another limitation of the study.
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation. The research was approved by the Institutional Review Board which has been granted permission by several health agencies to conduct the research. The Board approved the research before it was published and considered a nursing resource. Before approval, the study was analyzed for relevance to ascertain its usefulness in the current society. Its approval has, therefore, made it a reference article that indicates the correlation between vasectomy and prostate cancer. The statistical figures and language used have also been assessed. Each patient’s privacy was protected throughout the research and no personal information was leaked. To ensure effective patient privacy, they were asked not to disclose their names and identification numbers on the questionnaires.
Extensive research has been carried out on the issue of vasectomy and its relation to prostate cancer. However, much of the studies have not been able to conclude on the issue. As a result, fear has overwhelmed many males and most of them have become so coy and slow in addressing the issue. The data and findings from this research support the idea that vasectomy is associated with increased incidence of prostate cancer in the current world. After conducting this study, it is evident that there is need for scholars and healthcare professionals to carry out further studies on this topic. Despite the confidence that I have on this study, the data used was prone to many errors. Scholars in the field can take advantage of the current technological advancements to gain a more accurate and comprehensive record of participants’ data. Different research designs can also be applied to find more about the issue from a different perspective. In a nutshell, the results of this study is relevant when applied to the nursing field and thus, could be incorporated to enhance patient care.
Alqahtani, K. S., Srinivasan, S., Mital, D. P., & Haque, S. (2015). Analysis of risk factors for prostate cancer patients. International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics, 7(4), 365-380.
Garner, I. D. (2011). A Q-Methodological Study of Male Attitudes towards Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination. Inquiries Journal, 3(11).
Kiciński, M., Vangronsveld, J., & Nawrot, T. S. (2011). An epidemiological reappraisal of the familial aggregation of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. PloS one, 6(10), e27130.
Siddiqui, M. M., Wilson, K. M., Epstein, M. M., Rider, J. R., Martin, N. E., Stampfer, M. J., … &Mucci, L. A. (2014). Vasectomy and risk of aggressive prostate cancer: a 24-year follow-up study.Journal of Clinical Oncology,32(27), 3033-3038.