Population & Seasons

On Monday or Tuesday, you will complete it in a Study Group.

This HW CANNOT be completed entirely in a study group because it requires access to a computer and the internet.

In the research group, there are no computers. You can attend a study group with your computer (not a cell phone) or bring you completed or nearly completed HW for feedback. This HW will not be worth any extra points. You must make a copy of the HW, staple it, and bring it to Study Group if you plan to finish it in Study Group. There are no copies of the HW at Study Group.\nIf submitting your homework via D2L: Type the answers to these questions directly on this Word document. Where necessary, use supplied red circles to circle your answer. Expand the space as needed. **You must submit the assignment as a .doc, .docx. or .pdf format. These are the only formats we can accept. If you submit the HW in any other format it cannot be graded and will receive a 0/20 grade.**\nIf using Study Group to work on and submit your homework: Please draw any shapes specified by the question. If you start your homework in Study Group and don’t finish it, you may finish it on your own, scan it, and submit it to D2L by the deadline.\nYou may use your notes, the book, and work with others, but do your own work (for example, written answers must be in your own words). Cheating on this homework will result in a zero grade that cannot be dropped and a referral to the Dean of Students as per the syllabus. Please use Office Hours or make an appointment if you would like or need any help. We are here to help!\nThe homework has 20 questions and is worth a total of 20 points. \nTo complete this homework you will need to visit the website \nhttp://www.gapminder.org\nNOTE: You will need a computer to use this website. It does not work (colors & resolution wrong so you can’t answer the questions) on cell phones. Also, it the website doesn’t work in one browser, please try another. All of this is to say that you should not put off starting this HW!\nOnce at the website, click on the far left tab that says GAPMINDER WORLD.\nYou will see some text on Wealth of Health and Nations on the left, and a graph will load in the middle of the page. This graph shows you how various countries have evolved over time. For example, if you click (twice) on the play button at the lower left of the graph you will see how countries have developed over time (1800-2015), comparing income per person (x-axis) to life expectancy (y-axis). You can change the axes by clicking on the little arrows at the far end of the axis labels. You will see a menu appear, and you can simply select the index that you want to use on that axis.\nLet’s start with the very first graph that loaded automatically when you opened the tab GAPMINDER WORLD, showing how countries have developed over time. When you click play, you will see the years appear behind the plot, and the circles will move to show countries evolving during the time period 1800 - present.

1. What are the axis labels for this graph?

X-axis: Income per person (GDP/capita, PPP$ inflation-adjusted)
Y-axis: Life expectancy (years)
Before you push the play button (year 1800), roll your mouse over the colored circles to see what countries you can identify on the graph.
India, China, Japan, Albania, France, Italy, Ghana, Egypt, Morocco, United States, Netherlands, Brazil, Belize, Romania, Kenya, Israel

2. Which country is the small green circle near the top right of the cluster of circles on the graph (Year 1800)?

United States
Which country is the largest red circle, found toward the center of the cluster of circles on the graph (Year 1800)?
Which country is the 2nd largest red circle found at the lower left of the cluster of circles on the graph (Year 1800)?

3. When you start running the graph (Year 1800), which two countries have the highest population? (The size of the circles corresponds to total population.)

China and India

4. At the end (Year 2015), which two countries have the highest population?

China and India
Which of the following countries appears to have a pretty steady increase in income and life expectancy since 1800?
United States

5. How would you describe the increase in income and life expectancy for China since 1800? (Has it been steady over time, slow then fast, fast then slow, etc.)

It has been slow over time, then fast towards the end.
Ignoring some of the obvious outliers (such as African countries with low life expectancy), what is the overall trend of the graph telling you? (fill in the blanks with up, down, stays the same)
As income per person goes up, life expectancy goes up.
In your own words, explain what you think this trend means. (In other words, how does a country’s economy relate to population and life expectancy, and why).
An improvement in a country’s economy leads to higher life expectancy and consequently a higher population.
Now let’s change the y-axis to CO2 emissions (tonnes (=2205 lbs) per person) by clicking on the little arrow in the y-axis-label box and selecting CO2 emissions from the scroll menu. Give it a minute to load. Click play. The graph begins at the year 1800. How are carbon emissions changing over the first 50 years or so of the graph?
They are increasing
They are decreasing
They are constant
Is there any country in the early 1800’s (~1800-1850) that is increasing its CO2 emissions? If so, which one?
Yes. United Kingdom
You can use your mouse to drag the arrow next to the play button to any year you are interested in. You may also click on a country’s circle to focus on its changes.
What year does India start contributing CO2 emissions? __________1858___________
What year does China start contributing CO2 emissions? ________1899__________
What is the overall trend of CO2 emissions shown in the graph (increasing, decreasing, stay the same)?
Stays the same
Let the graph run to the end (2012).
How many tonnes of CO2 per person does each of the following countries contribute? Roll your mouse over the colored circles and look at the y-axis to see how many tonnes of CO2 per person each country contributes.
United States ________16_________________
China _______________7.1___________________
India ________________1.8__________________
Now change the y-axis to renewable water by selecting Environment->Water-> Renewable water. Run the graph by clicking play.
What is striking about the trend of this graph?
It is increasing
It is decreasing
It is constant
What is that little tiny (maybe orange?) circle trending downward as the graph runs (look towards the top of the graph)? Why do you think this country’s renewable water is dropping so drastically? (Hint: Consider what covers the surface of this country, and what happens to it)
It is Greenland. The renewable water is dropping drastically because of the melting of the ice cover which sheds into the sea after melting.
Now change the y-axis to total energy use by selecting Energy->Total->Total Energy Use.
In 1960 (when the graph starts), how does the United States compare to other countries in terms of energy use?
United States has the highest total energy use compared to any other country.
Which two large countries appear on the graph at year 1971?
China and India
Between 1995 and 2011, what is different about the trend in energy use for the United States, and the trend in energy use for China and India? (Think about rates). Explain why you think that is.
The United States has the lowest increase rate in total energy use followed by India which is slightly higher than that of the United States while China has the highest increase rate in total energy use. This is because in China, there was high demand for energy from the overgrowing population.
Understanding the Cause of Earth’s Seasons

Which is the correct ordering of the Northern Hemisphere Seasons according to Earth’s position at I, II, III, and IV, respectively. See Figure above.

Fall, Summer, Spring, Winter
Spring, Winter, Fall, Summer
Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter
Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall
Two students are discussing why the Earth has seasons:
Student 1: The Earth has seasons because in the summer the Earth is closer to the Sun.
Student 2: The Earth has seasons because its rotation axis is tilted from the vertical.
Circle the student you agree with. Explain why you agreed with the student you did (in your own words explain why distance or tilt accounts for the Earth’s seasons).
Student 2 because the rotation of the earth on the tilted axis causes the revolution of the earth around the sun and the different tilted positions of the earth in relation to the sun result in different climatic conditions.
The distance or tilt of the earth on its axis causes different parts of the earth to be tilted towards or away from the sun for some time causing a season. If the part of the earth is tilted towards the sun, summer occurs while winter occurs when the part of the earth is tilted away from the sun.

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