Politics and its Meanings

Politics has numerous meanings, but the core premise is that it is the process of building a government, seeking authority in a sovereign region, or a worldwide approach to forming an international system with member states facing a common challenge. The procedures’ goal is to find a solution to conflicts within a society or geographical area. One example of politics is elections in a country, such as the United States, when both the Republican and Democratic parties sell their beliefs to the population, who then choose one of them to represent the majority’s interests as their leader. Another example of an international state is coming together of a number of countries under the UN convention by member states as to find a solution to common threats such as climate change and terrorism. Lastly, the act of forming legislative policies such as the repealing of the affordable care act in the united states which involves the politics of the policies of those in power in providing a better solution though most people do not agree with the move.

Role of Institutions in Politics

Institutions play a significant role in creating, enforcing and applying the law to everyday activities to minimize conflicts within the societies and ensure the growth of the economy through policies for employment. In politics, the institutions such as political parties influence advancing of a common ideology which reflects the interests of the citizens. In the international scene, institutions such as the UN help in facing world problems such as climate change together since it affects the future generations regardless of geographical region. Political scientists argue that the government is an institution in itself which is necessary to establish laws that guide order, provide leadership through the representation of issues, and using the taxes to create a better economy for the improvement of living standards.

Separation of Powers and its Mechanisms

The separation of powers as set out in article 1, 2, and 3 of the Constitution of the U.S. sets up the executive, judicial, and legislature all which have particular powers limiting the majority to have their way. In most cases, they check and balance each other’s powers. For example, the Congress (legislature) has the power of passing laws, but a president (executive) has to veto the same. Also, the supreme court (judicial) has the mandate of interpreting an act as unconstitutional or not, but the congress (legislative) can amend the clause in the Constitution. Lastly, a president can make appointments of judges as an executive role. However, it has to be approved by the Senate which is part of the legislative arm.

National Defense and Federalism

Regarding national defense, the constitution under federalism allows the states to have their security measures such as local police departments and county law enforcement. However, the federal government plays a significant role not only in sharing intelligence but also providing the security of all the states in the United States such control of military and intelligence units. Education policies may differ in different states, but the laws guiding the same must conform to the federal constitution, and most funding comes from the national government. Lastly, social security issues such as healthcare are primarily provided by the federal government though states can enhance the programs too guided by the superiority of the Constitution.

Civil Liberties and Legislation

Freedom of speech is a civil liberty because a person cannot be denied to talk so long as they do not harm others and does not discriminate against any right. For voting, it is legislation because it is provided by the federal government hence if one is denied to vote there is a probable violation of the law directly provided for in the Constitution. Both speech and voting rights feed into each other because they allow a person to express their opinions or choices freely.

Public Opinion and its Sources

The first source of public opinion is events. An occurrence to an individual can influence their perception regarding particular topical issues. Secondly, a public opinion can arise from group identity. For example, a person belonging to a gender advocacy group is likely to be influenced by the ideals of that group. Lastly, it can arise from political actors such as the parties. A person belonging to the Democratic Party is likely to be liberal and support their policies. Among the three, a political actor is the most important one since it is under such campaigns that the government is chosen to implement that opinion if the group wins.

Ideologies of Political Parties

Firstly, the Democratic Party advances equality of rights to protect other people against discriminations such as racism. The party represents the minorities in the US. The ideology is liberal to advance fair practices. The Republican Party is conservative. The party promotes the interests of the indigenous population and interests. Lastly, it advocates only for the interest of their supporters and citizens.

Making of Laws in the Legislature

The first step of making the law is through a proposal reaching the legislature either through executive communication, a proposal by a member of the legislature, or a petition by constituents. If both sides of the house agree on it, then it proceeds as a bill which only becomes law if the president consents to the same.

Tension between Limited Government and Executive Power

The tension between a limited government and the executive power arises mostly due to the separation of power concept. The executive such as president’s Trumps administration might want to enforce a particular law of immigration, but the judiciary interprets it as unconstitutional hence the tension.

Originalism and Evolutionism in Judicial Decisions

Originalism is using the interpretation of the Constitution as it is in the enactment and only accepting the changes through amendments. The law guides the decisions by the judge. On the other hand, evolutionism involves overturning a case law in the past because of new social constructs. Judges should use an evolutionist approach since some issues such LBGT rights did not exist before and is now accepted in some of the cultural backgrounds as lawful.

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