Introduction to Research Methodology

An organized study known as research aims to identify a specific characteristic of a selected occurrence.

A solitary person or a team of researchers can transport it. The results of this kind of study are examined to determine their implications. A variety of techniques should be used for the study to be completed successfully. This essay's goal is to evaluate the research techniques used in a study. These comprise the study's design, demographic and sample, measurement and variables, data collection techniques, analytical techniques, and reporting techniques.

Problem definition, research query development, setting of the research hypotheses, and study scope definition are the first steps in the planning of a study.

A successful definition of problems allows the researcher to bear in mind the required outcomes of the study. The study design also defines the variables to be used thereby setting the direction of the research (Merriam, 2008). The researcher outlines the questions to be answered while carrying out the study. They also form a pivotal part of conclusion and recommendations of the research. During discussion of results, the researcher tries to respond to the questions set in the design.

The scope of the project is necessary because it restrains the study.

Especially when the field of the project is vast, the definition of scope is required to draw a line where the researcher should not exceed. Further, it is necessary to restrain the study to fit the limited resources of labor, money, and time. Even the studies conducted by biggest organizations must define their scope since time is limited.

Population and sample

The next stage in a study is determining the population and samples to be considered for the particular study. In some situation, the researcher may decide to use the entire population especially when it is not large or have discrete properties. Here, the properties of each variable are studied independently. However, such studies are limited since the characteristics cannot be compared.

If the population is large, the researcher develops methods of extracting a sample of variables. Methods like random, systemic, stratified, convenience, judgmental, quota and snowball sampling are some of the methods used to obtain a sample of variables from a population. Random, systemic, and stratified samplings are the most common methods used.

Variables and measures

Variables are aspects of the study that the researcher is concerned with during the research. They may be dependent or independent. The dependent variables are the elements whose quality or quantity changes with time (Merriam, 2008). The independent variables are the elements that do not alter with time by instead affect dependent variables.

The measures of a study are aspects that the researcher inquires response from the participants. The participants respond to these measures in the form of questionnaires or interviews. These measures relate directly to the question (s) of the study. They are the dependent variables that are tested in research. It is important for a researcher to identify variables and measures at the design stage to ensure smooth implementation.

Data collection methods

Data collection is gathering of all information collected from the field for analysis. The researcher collects information regarding the variables in the form of answers to questions, data to surveys, or values from an experiment. The information gathered helps the researcher to respond to the set questions.

A researcher can use one or combination of more than one method for data collection. These methods are classified as either direct or indirect. Direct methods involve interaction with individuals on a face-to-face basis where the respondents give facts or opinions towards the questions asked. Indirect interaction includes setting questionnaires or surveys and sending them for a response. The respondent attends to these questions at his convenience (Klein, 2014). The primary methods used are focus groups, observations, interviews, questionnaires, action research, and surveys.

The quality, credibility, reliability, and usability of the collected data depend on factors that affect respondents like literacy level, interest, time, experience, and interaction with the researchers. Therefore, the researcher should be careful while selecting his populations, setting questions, and interacting with respondents. The properties of collected data are inevitable, as they will determine the success of a researcher.

Data Analysis Methods

After collection of data, it is then analyzed to extract the intended information. The selected analysis method depends on factors like data available, time, resources, ethical basis of the research, and suitability of the method. The method selected also depends on whether the data is qualitative or quantitative. Some of the common methods used are hypothesis testing, statistical analysis, and triangulation, the creation of figures, spatial statistics, time series, and numerical computation among others (Klein, 2014). Triangulation is used to verify data by comparing two or more scenarios within the same context. Good research is characterized by informed selection of data collection and analysis methods.


This is the final stage of research where the researcher after interpreting the collected data and drawing inferences, a report is provided to detail the findings of the study. The researcher presents the results as a report outlining the entire process of research.



Klein, K. J., Dansereau, F., & Hall, R. J. (2014). Levels issues in theory development, data collection, and analysis. Academy of Management review, 19(2), 195-229.

Merriam, S. B. (2008). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. Revised and expanded from. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 350 Sansome St, San Francisco, CA 94104.

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