film production and globalization

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Globalization has revolutionized film making by allowing important shifts in the patterns and developments of the global film industry. Advances have made it possible for the entertainment industry to emerge as one of the most significant innovative industries attracting millions of audiences worldwide. In the past, Western countries dominated the film industry because of their creative talents and their involvement in the market. The issue ignited heated debates on the impact of film consumption on the local audience and citizen (Crane, 2014). However, the rise of “culture imperialism” theory intensified the debate further triggering a transitional change that brought sanity to the film industry shifting away from producer’s country to other foreign locations.
The rise of a new International Division of Cultural Labour has motivated producers from foreign countries to shoot films in other nations to maximize cost. The United States of America film producers, for example, prefer shooting films in countries like Mexico and Canada to take advantage of the attractive benefits they get from the host government and the cheap labor cost (Curtin and Vanderhoef, 2014). Therefore, following this trend, many countries have embraced the system hence try to attract foreign producers to take shots in their countries benefiting from the externalities and association with the international operation. Concisely, globalization has brought a remarkable change in many countries taking film production to advanced level embracing a high standard of creativity. Other factors such as attractive location, tax, beneficial exchange rates, cheap labor and other incentives offered by the host countries influence foreign film producers to capture shots on foreign countries (Srinivas, 2013). Nevertheless, they also conduct co-productions mixing skills and enriching film production making it more attractive.
Filmmaking has rapidly grown to a global activity as the features of the films produced for other exhibition channels, TV and cinema are growing outside the United States of America. Therefore, the growth also includes other countries specialized in film production such as India and China where numbers have increased annually for more than a decade driven by a high purchasing power and cinema investment as well as well as other exhibition channels. Conversely, small state-subsidized film countries have also rapidly grown in film production due to funding opportunities and the introduction of new policies. Therefore, the film production industry has heightened globally creating employment and encouraging creative skills. Countries such as Iceland, Switzerland, and Europe have attracted the world’s attention by winning home market shares from Hollywood as well as upgrading their production (Lyons, 2014). Remarkably, film production is still on the rise where new countries are enjoying the growing art film sites in Brazil, Mexico, and Nigeria. Nonetheless, the country of Nigeria has developed a flourishing video industry due to cheaper production technologies and the new exhibition channels.
Globalization has also contributed to the rise of global consumer taste increasing the level of competition for film producer with the aim of up-scaling production from international to global. Therefore, a film produced for global audience find a place in many national markets concurrently. Globalization also participates actively in distributing film content through several media platform such as the internet, satellite, TV and DVD that enables all audience around the world to observe. A film by Kung Fu, for example, has reached an audience all over the world (Michelle, Hardy, Davis and Hight, 2015). Nonetheless, the booming Indian movies have also reached other parts of the world such as Canada, USA and Indian diaspora in the UK (Lyons, 2014). Thus, the globalization of consumption has also triggered film producing countries such as India and Japan to come up with more aggressive skills of developing new technologies of distribution and exhibition that are perfect than Hollywood. The impression of globalization on the picture industry has also led to the standardization of production thus producers focus on themes that capture the whole world interest (Srinivas, 2013). It has also created a conducive platform for different countries to display their cultures such as the Nollywood, Bollywood and Hollywood films. Besides, various production organizations have positioned themselves in different parts of the world for easier broadcasting and co-productions with the native countries. Therefore, globalization has forever changed the film industry enabling it to make milestones continuously.
How media regulation has shaped TV/Radio production
Media regulation is a common practice executed by governments and other bodies. There also rules, laws or processes that advocate for the same due to various reasons for instance as means of intervention to protect the interest of the public and to develop a common technical standard (Reilly and Farnsworth, 2015). Other factors include efficient media market or encouraging competition. Principally, the main target of regulation are TV and radio, however; it may extend to the satellite, mobile phones, recorded music and film production. Despite, the constitution principle that advocates for freedom of the press, the government actively participates in the regulation of media strictly on TV/radio. Print media including newspapers and magazines are exempted hence they possess the freedom of printing anything (Gazi, Cordeiro, Starkey and Dimitrakopoulou, 2014). The government regulation is in charge of the broadcast media. Hence TV and radio have to obtain a valid license from it to access the airwaves. In the Unites States of America, for example, the Federal Communication Commission is in charge of regulating the airwaves and issues licenses. Therefore, these procedures have played a critical role in controlling what broadcast media releases.
Considerably, the regulation has enabled broadcast media to eschew from indecent and profane information in either speech or visual. It prohibits obscene programming that sends a bad image to the public. Some of the specification that the United States Supreme Court considers obscene includes the application of contemporary community standards that pleases the prurient interest. Also, provision of materials that describe or display information in an offensive manner such as sexual scenes, elements that lack serious meaning, political, scientific or artistic value. The federal law also discourages the use of profane language, incitement, and indecent programming. The federal communication commission has a stunning rule that prohibits improper transmission between 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. (Forde and Doyle, 2013). The same applies to profanity broadcasts. However, stations that violate the law might suffer consequences of their license revoked. Therefore, the regulation has ensured that the public receives comprehensive information that adds value to their lives. Nonetheless, it advocates for programs that educate, entertain and inform the public on current issues. Media regulation also regulates disturbing images that include fatal accidents and indecent films and customizes information to suit the public interest
Generally, in differentiating the effect of the rules and policy, there are two factors that matter. First, is if they relate to the private concern or public interests and whether they have a negative or positive implication. Also, branded as harm or possible benefits. Therefore regulation has made it easier for broadcasts to identify the right content to the public quickly. On issues of public concern, it focuses on whether the information shared promotes order as well as the security of the state. It also examines whether the content maintains public respect especially in matters pertaining decency and taste because it has to meet all these requirements. The regulation process also checks out whether the aired content benefits the public regarding public participation, flow, accessibility and diversity (Qi, 2013).Nonetheless, it strives to maintain the cultural standards while offering support to the national language and culture. It ensures respect to the human rights expression as well as protection from prejudice and insult of any form. Regulation helps broadcasts to avoid dangerous information to the society that may have a negative implication to the children as well as adults. Concisely, it meets all international roles while protecting and promoting the economic interest of the nation in communication industries and media.
Concerning the issues private or individual interest regulation has enabled broadcast to protect the rights of people their challenges and reputation. It also advocates for the right content that will no trigger violence and also prevent offense to people especially politicians in the public domain. Lastly, regulation is essential for the protection of property right in both information and communication. Regulatory, issues may also vary from one country to another, but the bottom line is this laws and rules are all geared towards the protection of the public and individual concern (Meng, 2015). Therefore, the regulation has shaped TV and radio broadcasts positively minimizing conflicts and maintaining integrity and respect at all times.
How advertising industry has developed film production
The advertising industry performs a significant role in promoting film production this is done through the popularization of movies in the social media to attract the audience. The advert industry uses various forms in availing films to the market such as animations in a web page, press and the internet platform (Lv and Jiang, 2016). Nevertheless, the advertisement industry creates awareness to the clients on the latest films hence improving on sales and motivates more productions. Nollywood and Bollywood film producers release millions of series every year this is because these movies are popular in the world market through advertisement in the social media (Maheshwari, Seth, and Gupta, 2014). Adverts have also stimulated more competition. Hence producers are working hard employing unique and creative tactics to stand out in the world market. They have also made selling and buying films easier because clients can buy and download directly from the internet. Nevertheless, the use of advertisement has enabled countries GDP to rise hence boosting their economies. Furthermore, more people have joined the film industries bringing in unique talent and innovations.
Cinemas, are developed in a unique manner bearing attractive images and themes that make their arrival rate to the audience fast. Appealing advertisement go viral both in the social media and print media making the movie more popular hence increases sales. Clients also put down their comments on social media adverts enabling the producers to get the opinions of the audience hence improve their production to suit their customer’s expectations (Golle, 2013). In urban areas where more people use the internet to work, they get an opportunity to view several adverts popping up in a day hence they make several clicks making the advert more attractive. The adverts developed in social media in most cases give people sense of realism and beauty attracting more people to watch. The low-cost implication is incurred in film advertisement due to a combination formed with other types of advertising and sales promotion (Gifford, 2016). Therefore, this type of advertisement spreads all over the social media attracting more audience and improves movie sales all over the world. Higher production potentials also add value to ads in film production when it is done on a larger screen such as billboards it gives a good view due to a longer time frame. It provides an amazing display that attracts more audience creating in then the urge of purchasing the whole film. Consequently, the mode of advertisement also matters TV and radios play a critical role in advertising various cinema making it easier for those who cannot access social media to watch and listen (Kapoor and Gupta, 2014). They, also broadcast upcoming films making the audience to keep on checking attracting market earlier in advance.
The film industry works best when the level of publicity is high because there is a need to make all movies known to the public to raise their awareness of the new release. Nevertheless, advertisement industry has economically boosted movie production by increasing the demand of clients who seek for films. It has also led to increased creativity and innovation in the publicity industry enabling individuals to come up with catchy and attractive adverts that appeal to the public increasing their urge for more movies. Films that have a good reputation have a ready market because they are shared all over the social media by fans making the adverts more popular. Therefore, advertisements have significantly shaped the film production in a positive manner boosting its market and popularity.

References
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Curtin, M., and Vanderhoef, J., 2014. A Vanishing Piece of the Pi: The Globalization of Visual Effects Labor. Television & New Media, p.1527476414524285.
Forde, T. and Doyle, L., 2013. A TV whitespace ecosystem for licensed cognitive radio. Telecommunications Policy, 37(2), pp.130-139.
Gazi, A., Cordeiro, P., Starkey, G. and Dimitrakopoulou, D., 2014. ‘Generation C’and audio media: A cross-cultural analysis of differences in media consumption in four European countries.
Gifford, D. ed., 2016. British Film Catalogue: Two Volume Set-The Fiction Film/The Non-Fiction Film. Routledge.
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Meng, J., 2015. Prohibition and production of the past: Representation of the Cultural Revolution in TV dramas. Media, Culture & Society, 37(5), pp.671-685.
Michelle, C., Hardy, A.L., Davis, C.H. and Hight, C., 2015. An unexpected controversy in Middle-earth: audience encounters with the ‘dark side’of transnational film production. Transnational Cinemas, 6(1), pp.49-66.
Qi, S., 2013. The impact of advertising regulation on industry: The cigarette advertising ban of 1971. The RAND Journal of Economics, 44(2), pp.215-248.
Reilly, B., and Farnsworth, J., 2015. Going commercial: navigating student radio in a deregulated media marketplace. Interactions: Studies in Communication & Culture, 6(1), pp.9-27.
Srinivas, L., 2013. Communicating globalization in Bombay cinema: Everyday Life, Imagination and the persistence of the local. Comparative American Studies.

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