There is improved interconnection. In today’s world, as opposed to the past. However, according to Wadhwa and Arora (2017), despite the advantages of increased interconnectivity, more threats of violence and theft continue to exist. If the United States relies heavily on digital technologies, it becomes more vulnerable to cyber-attacks such as spear phishing, violating corporate security, and a spike in the incidence of social network fraud. According to Shackelford (2016), as the use of digital technologies has increased in the United States, many cyber crimes have occurred, resulting in the destruction of vital elements of the government and institutions. Other activities that are associated with cybercrimes include terror attacks like the 9/11, data hacking, and illegal access to the database systems (Shafqat & Masood, 2016).Due to these issues, the united states have developed national policies to combat the cybercrimes.
The top federal policies include the law enforcement and complementary cyber security capabilities that are essential and critical in securing and safeguarding the American cyberspace. The law enforcement policy performs a significant role in achieving the cyber security objectives of the United States through investigating the various types of cybercrimes. The other top national strategy that is being used by America is the establishment of Department of Homeland security commonly known as DHS. According to Laughlin (2015), the DHS works together with many federal agencies in conducting higher-impact criminal inquiries to defeat and disrupt the cybercriminals. Moreover, DHS’s policy continually prioritizes the recruitment and adequate training for the technical experts, developing standard methods, and engaging in sharing the best tools and practices for combatting cybercrime. Another essential national policy is maintaining the electronic crimes task force through United States (U.S) secret service. Moreover, in their study Harrop and Matteson (2015) outline that the strategy emphasizes and focuses on the identification and location of the international cyber criminals that are connected to the bank fraud, cyber intrusions, terror connections, and data breaches. Moreover, the cyber intelligence department of the secret service contributes to the arrest several transnational cyber felons.
More significantly the establishment of a national computer forensics policy institutes provide the law enforcement offices, judges, and prosecutors with useful cyber information and training to assist in combatting the cybercrimes. Another national policy in fighting the cybercrimes is the United States immigration and customs enforcement that mainly delivers the desktop and computer-based technical activities and services in supporting the international and domestic investigations. According to Shafqat and Masood, (2016), the law enforcement and cyber incident reporting national policy provide data for the country, territorial, local and tribal for the law enforcement on how, what, and when to successfully communicate the cyber incidents to the federal entity. Other top national policies include conducting cyber security exercises training, providing cyber security jobs to the individual that prevents other individuals from engaging in cyber-crimes. These high national systems help in combatting cybercrimes through achieving common cyber security objectives of the United States.
According to Harrop and Matteson (2015), the strategies work to protect the critical infrastructure that supports cyber services, securing the national networks, and enhancing efficient cyber incident responses. Moreover, the cyber security insurance policy continues to be essential in protecting the enterprise and people from the increased internet-based threats. But since the establishment and implementation of the national policies there has been a reduction in the rate of cybercrimes that federal and internationally occur. Moreover, Laughlin (2015) outlines that systems not only the United States but also the other nations across the globe that have been experiencing cyber-crimes. But for effective implementation of the national policies there are vital agencies that conduct the preparation, response, and recovery of the cyber-attacks in the United States. These organizations are discussed as follows
Agencies Responsible For Preparing, Responding and Recovering From the Cyber Attack
The cyber security insurance agency-mainly offers protection to the individuals and business from the Internet-based risks. Moreover, in his study Laughlin (2015) elaborates that the agency protects the cyber institutions from various threats that relate to the information technology (IT) activities and infrastructure.
The United States secret service agency-The agency mainly offers maintenance on the electronic crimes mission forces that emphasize on identifying and locating the national and international cybercriminals. Jhaveri et al. (2017) outline that the agency contributes towards arresting the cybercriminals responsible for stealing millions of dollars, credit cards, and data breaching. Additionally, the united state secret service runs a national computer forensic institutes that provide law enforcement officers, judges, and prosecutors with cyber information and training.as a result this significantly assists in combatting the frequent cyber crimes
The United States immigration and the customs enforcement (ICE) agency –In collaboration with the homeland safety investigation and the cybercrime centers (C3), the ICE provides computer-based procedural services in supporting the international and domestic studies on cybercrimes. According to Bosco et al. (2016), the C3 comprises different cyber-crimes units, computer forensic units, and the child abuse investigation units. These groups provide cybercrime training and support to the federal states and the international enforcement agencies.
The law enforcement cyber incident and reporting agency-The agency provide data for the local, states, and territorial rule enforcement on when, how, where, and what to report to the cyber incidents to the federal entity. According to Dilek, Çakır, and Aydın (2015), the agency through its documents offers data on the federally sponsored education and training opportunities and many essential resources available for combatting cyber crimes
DHS (Department of homeland security) agency –It works together with other several federal agencies in conducting higher-criminal investigations into disrupting and defeating the cybercriminals. Moreover, in his study Saunders (2017) elaborates that the company prioritizes on the recruitment and education of the technical experts and developing standardized methods
The federal Bureau of investigations (FBI) agency –Is the primary body that performs sufficient investigations on cyber-crimes that occur within the United States. Clough (2014) elaborates that the FBI recognizes the information, assets, and infrastructure that the US holds in the form of the data systems of institutions, individuals, and governments. The FBI has successfully reduced higher rates of cyber-crimes in the United States. However, Bosco et al.(2016) outline that there are critical infrastructure sectors that help in preparing, responding, recovering, and mitigating the cyber-attacks But the study would only focus on one of the 16 vital infrastructure sectors as discussed below.
An Information Technology Sector
The sector serves as the critical element to the United States security system. Most of the organizations, scholarly communities, private residents, and governments rely on the industry to detect, fight, and prevent the occurrence of cybercrimes. The information technology (IT) sector capacities establish, create, and provide equipment, data, and programming innovation frameworks. According to Shafqat and Masood (2016), the sector is significant since it outlines essential resources that are necessary for successful implementation of cybercrime investigations. Additionally, the industry works in association with other critical infrastructure sectors such as communication, defense industrial sector, and finance sectors in enhancing cyberspace activities and services (Saunders, 2017). Therefore, through the national agencies and infrastructures, the United States continues to combat cybercrimes.
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