Kelly and Foster outline female genital mutilation as the removal of female exterior genitals for sacred or cultural purposes. It is a practice that is usually forcefully performed without the consent of the victim as it is carried out when they are still underage. It is a exercise that has been provoked internationally as being a barbaric attack towards women. FGM is related with a lot of pain, which under certain circumstances, can lead to death. On the other hand, girl genital cosmetic surgery is the practice carried out on the lady genitals, manipulating the genital’s shape mainly aimed at enhancing sexual gratification as nicely as its appearance. FGCS is practiced by adult girls who may have special reasons for the practice. Some of the girls undergoing FGCS are forced into the practice because of peer pressure or because they want to avoid abuse regarding the shape of their genitals from their sexual partners (Kelly and Foster 392). To add on those two is another practice known as female genital piercing, which is the practice of opening a small hole on the genitals (labia and clitoris) through piercing to allow the wearing of jewelry on those parts. Women who undergo piercing see it as the marker of their individualism, celebratory, or as ritually empowering act.
Laws have been passed all over the world to prevent FGM practice as it is regarded as an act that is against the women rights. These laws are aimed at protecting female figures from medical harms of FGM. However, FGCS and genital piercing have been of less concern to the criminal law as these dealings are assumed to be carried out by registered medical officers, and the women undergoing it are already adults who approve it.
Kelly B, Foster C. Should female genital cosmetic surgery, and genital piercing be regarded ethically and legally as female genital mutilation? BJOG 2012;119:389–392.