With the increase in the technical pace, every day attempts are being made towards the development of some kind of work that has been decremented in the past. Effective and commercially feasible efforts to achieve the desired performance can be made by the introduction of improved modes of architecture. Power screws are used to convert rotary movements in order to achieve a reciprocating type of motion. An object lift jack is an example of a control screw where a minimum force can be used within the horizontal plane to boost or lower large loads. From this fabricated type of model, there will be an integration of electric model with the objecting lifting jack plus the electricity essential for the operation will be acquired from direct current d.c battery and thus, in this case, enhancing its mechanical advantage.
In the course of carrying out this study, it has established that various automobile types of garages use complicated methods towards the lifting of vehicles during reconditioning, repair work and maintenance as well. The fabricated model presented in this study has focused on this complexity and thus coming up with a suitable device. After its design, the device such would be able to lift heavy vehicles and other heavy objects as well from the ground surface minus the use of the impact force (Woo, Jo, Kim & Lee, 2016). The part of its fabrication has been considered because of its almost economy and simplicity and this case making it possible to be accommodated as one of the primary tools and equipment in the automobile garages.
The development of an object lifting jack is necessary since it satisfies the needs of both small and medium sized auto-mobile garages that often get powered from the minimal cases of low skilled labor (Patel, Gaurav, Srinivas & Singh, 2017). Many vehicles often get lifted by the use of screw jack when in this require higher levels of the workforce and skilled form of labor. With the intent of these demerits, this automated object motorized type of object lifting jack has been designed in a manner that may be applicable in lifting vehicles so efficiently minus any impact force.
Necessity for automation
The desire to implement the aspect of automation is to ensure;
Attainment of mass form of production
Reduction in the use of human effort
Increment in the Jack’s efficiency
Decrease in the workload, cost, time and material handling
1.2 Operation Principles
Consideration is given to the lead screw as an inclined form of a plane with inclination α. During the raising or lowering of the load, the below forces act at a point on the inclined plane
When raising or lowering or raising a given amount of weight, the following forces act at a point on this inclined plane.
1.2.1 Load (W):
Acts downwardly in a vertical direction
1.2.2 Normal reaction (N):
Has an action that is normal to the inclined plane
1.2.3 Frictional force (μN):
Frictional force has an action that is opposite to the motion. Where movement of the load occurs on the inclined plane, the action of the frictional force occurs along the inclined plane in a direction that is downwards (Woo, Jo, Kim & Lee, 2016). Also, where the movement of the load takes place downwards on the inclined plane, the action of frictional force takes place on the inclined plane through an upward directional manner.
1.2.4 Effort (P)
The action occurs in a direction that is normal to the load, W. Also, its effect may occur towards the right track with the intent of overcoming the friction and in turn raising the weight. Explanation on this is as presented in the below Figure 1.
Figure 1: Operation Principles of the Object Lifting Jack
1.3 Components of fabricated model
1.3.1 D.C motor
During the operation of the motor, it often produces a torque. The resultant torque is what generates a mechanical rotation.
1.3.2 Lead Screw
A lead screw is a mobile device that is made of screw mechanism applicable in either raising or lowering the load. The component, in this case, may be short, tall or even thin though this depends on the quantity of pressure that it will encounter and also the space that it will be accommodated.
Batteries assist in the storage of an excess supply of solar energy that may further transform into an electric form of energy (Woo, Jo, Kim & Lee, 2016). Due to the high expenditures incurred when acquiring batteries, the system must undergo optimization concerning the present energy and the pattern of the local demand.
1.3.4 Ball bearing
Ball bearing aids in the reduction of kinetic friction and provision of support to both radial and axial loads. It attains this objective through the use of two or more races in containing the balls and transmission of the loads via the balls.
1.3.5 Spur gears
The aim of spur gears is to enhance the transmission of motion and power in between shafts that parallel.
1.3.6 Limit Switch
Limit switch’s operation is aided by the machine’s motion or the availability of an object. Hence, the switch assists in controlling the device concerning safety precautions or in the counting of those objects that pass through specified points (Lim, Park, Yun, Jeong & Park, 2015). Further to this, the switch has with it a mechanical device that comprises an actuator with mechanical linkage to sets of contacts. If an object touches the actuator, the device functions in a manner that leads to the contact making or breaking the electrical connectivity.
1.3.7 Control switch
Power switch aids in starting or stopping the whole of the operation of the object lifting jack. The simple switch often used is the toggle switch. Toggle switch represents a typical group of electrical switches that work through manual actuation through either mechanical form of a lever, handle or a rocking kind of mechanism (Feldner, Logan & Galloway, 2016). In this case, its design ensures a contemporary form of action of various sets of electrical contacts or regulation considerable electric current or mains voltage.
1.3.8 Control cables
Power cables provides the connectivity of battery with switch and motor
1.3.9 Base and Frame
The frame is where the whole of the set up has been established. For instance, mounting of mortar has been done on the U shaped form of the support frame (Lim, Park, Yun, Jeong & Park, 2015). Also, there is an attachment of the ball rollers to the end sections of the base for purposes of motion and at the same time aided by the electrically operated switch.
1.4 Specifications of parts
As worked out by Lim, Park, Yun, Jeong & Park, (2015), the part specifications are as stated in the below tables;
2.0 Design Considerations
The load that acts on the screw is the one that gets lifted W, with twisting moment M, moving between the screw threads and force F at the handle to cause rotation of the screw. The load W is always compressive and thus initiates compressive stress within the bolt. At the same time, it may also lead to the buckling of the screw (Allotta et al., 2015). Meanwhile, the load F causes bending and reaches a maximum at the time when the pin also reaches its maximum lift. Likewise, the screw undergoes twisting moment because of F, and there is also the induction of the shear stress in the screw because of the twisting moment that is present between the threads of both the nut and the bolt.
2.1 Problem Specification
There is need to design an object lifting jack that supports the parts of the machine during repair and maintenance (Lim, Park, Yun, Jeong & Park, 2015). In this regard, it should be a general purpose jack that has the capability of carrying 50KN and a maximum height for lifting at 0.3m. The operation of the jack is a d.c motor.
2.2 Selection of Materials
The object lifting Jack’s frame is very complex regarding its shape since it is prone to compressive to compressive stress. In this regard, gray cast iron has been chosen as the material suitable for the frame. Cast iron is very cheap and may be made to fit any complex shape minus undergoing a lot of expenses during the machining operations. Moreover, cast iron has high compressive strength in comparison to steel (Feldner, Logan & Galloway, 2016). For this reason, it becomes technically advantageous to use cast iron for the frame.
Screw experiences torsion moment, compressive force and bending moment as well. Due to strength considerations, EN8 is suitable for the material for use as a pin.
A relative motion is in place in between the bolt and the nut thus leading to friction thus, in the end, resulting in wear of the surfaces that are in contact with each other (Feldner, Logan & Galloway, 2016). If there is the use of similar materials of these components, their surfaces will wear thus calling for a need for replacement. To avoid frequency of this substitution, the selected material, in this case, is the stainless steel.
3.0 Design Calculations
From Allotta et al., (2015), model manipulations are stated in the figures 3 (a) and (b) below
Figure 3 (a): Design Calculations
Figure 3 (a): Design Calculations
Object lifting jacks are suitable components when it comes to pushing, pulling, lifting and positioning of loads of any component ranging from kilograms to many hundreds of tonnages. The urgency has all along been there for an improvised movable jack for automobile forms of vehicles. In this regard, it needs more desirable there be an availability of jack that its operation may be done alternatively internally in the vehicle or from that place that is safe from where the vehicle is situated. A jack such as this needs to be light in weight and also compact such that it may be kept in an automobile trunk, may as well be lifted and also carried by people to its area of utilization and still be capable of raising a wheel of close to the 5000-pound vehicle above the ground. Not forgetting, the jack should have stability and be manageable through switching so that jacking process may be done carefully. On top of this, it needs to be easy to move from any position that is underneath the vehicle’s axle or any other reinforced support surface that the jack is meant to lift. Due to this reason, the design of this jack has taken all the considerations listed and as a result, stands out to be advantageous when it comes to lifting and raising of heavy load components.
5.0 Reference List
Allotta, B., Pugi, L., Bartolini, F., Ridolfi, A., Costanzi, R., Monni, N., & Gelli, J. (2015). Preliminary design and fast prototyping of an autonomous underwater vehicle propulsion system. The Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, 229(3), 248-272.
Feldner, H. A., Logan, S. W., & Galloway, J. C. (2016). Why the time is right for a radical paradigm shift in early powered mobility: the role of powered mobility technology devices, policy, and stakeholders.
Lim, J. H., Park, J. S., Yun, Y. W., Jeong, S. B., & Park, G. J. (2015). The design of an airbag system of a mid-sized automobile for pedestrian protection. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 229(5), 656-669.
Patel, Y., Gaurav, A., Srinivas, K., & Singh, Y. (2017). A Review of Design and Analysis of the propeller used in UAV. Int. J. Adv. Prod. Ind. Eng, 605, 20-23.
Woo, S., Jo, H. J., Kim, I. S., & Lee, D. H. (2016). A functional security architecture for in-vehicle can-fd. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 17(8), 2248-2261.