Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction

Drug Dependency

From the novel ‘Criminology today: An integrative introduction’ by Frank Schmalleger published in 2011, National Institute on Drug Abuse defined drug dependancy as a relapsing brain disease that is associated with a substance use sickness that urges one to continue taking the drug despite its harmful effects. NIDA referred to that the complexity of drug addiction leads to modification of structures of quintessential organs and changes brain functionality. The five schedules or training of controlled substances are shown in Table 13-1.

Five Classes of Controlled Substances

The placement of the drugs in their respective classes depends on various factors, which include the relative potential abuse of the drugs and the current acceptance of the materials for medical treatment in the United States. For instance, in Schedule I Controlled Substances, Drugs such as marijuana, peyote, and heroin has a high potential for abuse because they have no popular acceptance for medical use in the United States. Opium, morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and methadone are Substances in Schedule II Controlled Substances (Schmalleger, 2011). The drugs in Schedule II can lead to severe psychological dependence because they have a high risk of abuse.

Schedule III Substances

Substances in Schedule III have less risk of abuse than the substances in schedule II or I. Abuse of Schedule III drugs like ketamine or anabolic steroids can lead to either low physical or high psychological dependence. Examples of Schedule IV substances are alprazolam, clonazepam, carisoprodol, and clorazepate, which have a low potential for abuse. The substances in Schedule V may lead to limited psychological dependence and are accepted for medical use in the United States. The substances in schedule V have a lower risk of abuse than the ones in schedule IV. The substances in this schedule include cough suppressants and ezogabine.


In conclusion, drug classification schedules formed under the Controlled Substance Act in the United States organize drugs into groups depending on their risk of harm or abuse. All drugs with high risk are in schedule I because they are banned from medical use in the United States.


Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminology today: An integrative introduction. Prentice Hall.

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