Challenges of Tourism

According to Wheeller (1991), global tourism is going up rapidly and visitors have gone up to never before. The growth of tourism clearly generates a social challenge that has to be addressed. Tourism's issues are from a local to a global point of view. We have hotel congestion, environmental degradation, noise pollution and other urban problems locally. When visitors arrive in an area previously unoccupied by the aliens, the global effects are experienced. Social problems such as ethnic interactions and social conflicts are included. Tourists are not restricted to the people who temporarily or permanently reside in a new location but also the transit population who just pass by. Realizing the issues mentioned above is important in coming up with solutions to the tourism problems.
Furthermore, Wheeller (1991) asserts that it is imperative for the proposed solution to be able to tackle the problem for both the advantages and disadvantages posed to balance the two. Previously suggested solutions have often been targeting the difficulties at the expense of the advantages. As a result, the success of the solutions has not been witnessed because it is from the benefits of tourism that the costs are incurred. According to the author, the main disadvantages of tourism like congestion of hotels is caused by the advantages of the same tourism which is increased mass touring by the public. The author further proposed a solution plan that encompasses all the issues addressed by tourism in the industry. He divided the area to be covered by the solutions into subtopics, responsible tourism, macro vs. micromanagement of tourism problems and green policies.

Responsible Tourism
Responsible tourism is the education of the public to champion ethical practices in the industry. It involves education of both the tourists and the locals in the areas being toured. The best approach cannot be overstated in its influence to responsible tourism. However, achieving this task is difficult due to the various variables present. For one, the perception of an ideal tourist is not fixed due to varied cultural needs and practices. Moreover, successful education would take a lot of time to be effective by which the harmful effects of tourism will have taken its full effects
Macro Versus Micro Management
Macro versus micromanagement of tourism is an area where the author addresses the solutions for tourism issues. Micromanagement is the policies and solutions that target the individual or small groups. The author asserts that the move to manage tourism in small categories may seem financially viable but overall management of tourism is the best because it gives standard practice for the sector in all levels and regions. Even though the latter approach of managing tourism as a whole may seem unmanageable, it has been practically proved to be the efficient solution of the two.
Green Policy
Green policy is the adoption of a legal system which bans the use of some non-biodegradable products and services. The author states that the use of this policy is not as effective as it seems because it attracts more demand from the tourist and worsens the problems associated with tourism. The author reviews some of the adopted green policies in tourism like spreading the peak seasons. According to the author, spatial tourism is only a stopgap solution and would not provide sustainable outcomes.
Wheeller, B. (1991). Tourism's troubled times: Responsible tourism is not the answer. Tourism Management, 12(2), 91-96.

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