About Juvenile Delinquency

The involvement of minor children between the ages of 10 and 17 in criminal activity is known as juvenile delinquency. Such harmful behaviors may result in crimes or legal actions that frequently generate difficulties in society. Juvenile criminality includes populations with a variety of socioeconomic characteristics and origins that are linked to the juvenile justice system and crime. Several kids grow up without engaging in delinquent activity, even if they periodically run against many dangers.
Risk indicators may help identify which kids require safety precautions the most, but they can't predict with any degree of certainty which kids will commit serious or persistent crimes. It is apparent that most adult offenders were convoluted in delinquent behavior when they were children or youths. However, most children and teenagers do not grow up to be adult offenders. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of how the society including the criminal justice system contribute to juvenile delinquency and what can be done to offer equal opportunities for youth in the United States.

Impact of Family on Juvenile Delinquency

The family represents the foundation of humanity. Children who are brought up in households with substantial conflicts, who are rejected by their parents or sometimes ineffectively overseen are at risk of becoming felonious (Bartollas, 2014). Family acts as one of the most influential institutions that contribute to the social structure of a child. Family teaches children to control behaviors that are unacceptable and to respect the right of other people in the society. However, families can also teach children aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviors. Due to these, it is apparent that the youthful will end up aberrant. Positive child-rearing during early years and later in the adolescent stage act as barriers that prevents criminal actions and aiding the adolescents to desist from delinquency (Bartollas, 2014).

The adolescent is a stage in which children go through vulnerabilities and opportunities, and that accompanies widening of the communal and topographical acquaintance to life past school and family. However, that particular stage in the life adolescent initiates with the family. According to most study, different acquaintances to viciousness acts as significant bases of early juvenile role exits which mean that not only can adolescent experience violence within the family but extend outdoor as well (Bartollas, 2014). If the emotional environment of the life of the juvenile encompasses abuse that there is a high likelihood that they will be engaged in delinquent activities.

Coercion model proposes that a family setting impacts the personal life of adolescent and influences group selection as well. Peers with more forcible social style will be more tangled with each other, and the association is expected to upsurge the probability of being involved in criminal conduct. Therefore, comprehending the characteristics of relationship within the family to embrace compliance, solidity, and gratification acts as a platform for accepting the youth. Family conducts such as maternal disciplining and monitoring seem to effect connotation with irregular peers all over adolescent stage (Thompson & Bynum, 2016).

Monitoring a child becomes increasingly vital as children move to the young age and spend less time lower than the direct direction of blood relation or other grownups. Coercive parenting and inability to monitor contributes to direct antisocial behaviors of boys and provide their increased opportunity to associate with peers that are deviant. Communication also plays a momentous role in the functioning of the family (Thompson & Bynum, 2016). The significance of interaction for ideal family operational has great inferences for antisocial conduct. Disclosure is related to the charge of negligent actions, and the alterations are revealed within the category of the marital status of family, age, and sex. Family plays a vital role in shaping the life of a child and making them law-abiding children in the society (Thompson & Bynum, 2016).

Impact of School on Juvenile Delinquency

In most instances, education has traditionally been known as the responsibility of the school. There is an elevated insight that institutes are the only gadgets of communal transformation and value. Schools are viewed as the critical key agency for socialization and social modification as well (Taylor, 2014). The society views schools as its savior. Such insight finds thoughtful expression in the anticipation placed on institutions to give to law-breaking deterrence. Schools are in an excellent position to classify violence in the life of youngsters. However, schools can also be a source of delinquency and violence. Inadequate school building and equipment may be a source of child delinquency (Taylor, 2014). Classrooms that are overcrowded and poor ventilated make discipline as well as good wellbeing among children in schools unbearable. Inadequate staff and lack providing essential books and apparatuses are often an indication that the time that children have is timely occupied. The idleness gives them plenty of opportunities to plot and carry out actions of disruption (Taylor, 2014).

Some schools also lack inadequate facilities for recreation. Lack of recreational facilities such as playground and other services for games characterizes the absence of the only wealth for the communal channel and exercise of the characters. Such insufficiencies deny the children of treasured general and cerebral cleanliness. The playground and the instructor in charge of games are important aspects of character education just like the classroom teacher re in academic training. Lack of such may fuel delinquent behaviors among children since they lack alternatives to keep them busy. Besides, school systems that are too unbending and may conquest its resolution and create fresh rebels. Unnecessary regulations in the school system are effortlessly noticed and disliked by children. In a bid to protest against these unreasonable rules, they may rebel against all the rules hence becoming delinquent. Furthermore, fixed curricula that are not modified to the skills of children may cause some of them to feel disgruntled and get into other troubles to evade the dull task in the curricula. Lack of individual consideration of children in school may discourage children since every child needs some attention in a large school that encourages and motivate them.

Poor attendance regulations and lax enforcement give the children ample time to turn into a rebellious child. They can always find excuses for being away from schools. Similarly, lax implementation of attendance makes it stress-free for children to miss school and become delinquent. Nonattendance is a form of law-breaking itself but frequently creates opportunities for wrongdoings of much more grave nature. Wrong grading also contributes to child delinquency in some ways. Categorizing above psychological level causes a child to fail his responsibilities as they will associate disapprovingly to colleagues and will receive a scolding from his teachers and sometimes parents. The act may cause a child to grow worried as they will have bad periods of sleep, mental conflicts and among other symptoms. They may recourse to antisocial behaviors as a substitute to attaining achievement. Grading below psychological level suggests that the work may become too easy to a child. Such children tend to accomplish their tasks before others with less effort hence giving them more time to spend on mischievous activities.

The unsatisfactory teacher can also be a contributing factor as far as the delinquency of a child is concerned. A teacher who does not ensure that all the children happily engaged in that they allow freedom one minute and the other minute they become strict with children of the same things the additional hour is incompetent and may make some of his pupils to be delinquent. Poor teaching abilities such as the inability to discipline a class and poor teaching abilities will often make the children to lack respect towards the teacher. Children that are more hostile and confident will tend to take advantage of the condition hence becoming dominant. Poor teaching abilities also indicate that the trainings are dull or complicated so that the children may do anything to avoid them.

Criminal Justice System

The effects the juvenile justice system has on the juveniles that are waiting to be processed in the juvenile impartiality system or those ones that have already been adjudicated can make the difference between a juvenile becoming a good or a bad person in future (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). There are a number of theories that can be put in place to clarify the relationship between juvenile delinquency and the juvenile justice system. Social theory was coined to explain the behavior of juvenile delinquents. It states that people learn behavior through exposure and observation. After learning they will tend to act out the behaviors that they have learned (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). If they can perform the behavior then they will make evaluation on whether they feel rewarded by performing it. If they feel positive reinforcements then they will make it part of their life and put it into use whenever they deem necessary. Delinquent behaviors among the juveniles will therefore continue until the juvenile feels they are no longer beneficial to them.

Most logical explanation of criminal behavior is attributed to Differential Association (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). It points out that the actions demonstrated by children at home and in school are in line with the belief that criminal behavior develops as a result of associating with individuals who commit crime. However, criminal justice can be broad as it encompasses the police force, courts and sometimes the detention facilities. Among these categories, detention can be quite disruptive to the lives of children and adolescents (Siegel & Welsh, 2016). It separates the children from friends, families, schools and their support systems. Moreover, many detention centers have become overcrowded tampering with their ability to offer quality services to the juveniles that are charged with delinquency.

Such conditions promote increased altercations between the staff and the juveniles and increased injuries to the juveniles (Ryan et al, 2013). Such instances hinder the main motive of transforming the juveniles from delinquents but instead make them to become even more hardcore criminals. Besides, there is an element of ethnic inequality in the juvenile justice system as the fraction of black adolescents under the management doubles the proportion of the general population. What ensues to youth in their transactions with the youthful justice structure may have considerable significances for consequent growth and projections for their future (Ryan et al, 2013).

Concentrated Disadvantage

Studies have publicized that insufficiency, urbanism, and ethnic inequality are significant forecasters of the process of making decisions (Petrosino et al, 2013). Community disadvantage plays an essential part in the particular adolescent court results plus adjudication and detention. Despite the reason that marginal youth are probable to live in deprived areas, the connection of civilization and focused disadvantage cannot be underestimated (Petrosino et al, 2013). Not only are the black children less probable to be processed casually than white youth in the middle class but are likely to be detached from their families. Racial differences are credited to the financial muscle of White middle-class relations who can offer for private services hence preventing system penetration for the youth.

For several youths from lower class families, the solitary way to obtain such services is through adjudication and confinement (Petrosino et al, 2013). In the long run, issues in the juvenile court outcomes due to the reason that youth lack sufficient means to thrive in their societies. It is also apparent that economic capacity has a great deal of influence over the proceedings of the court. Juvenile court verdicts are heavily swayed by where the children reside and factors that relate to family. It is not a surprise that contemporarily, a concentrated disadvantage is fundamental to present struggles that seek to develop the well-being of the adolescence (Petrosino et al, 2013).

Solutions for Equal Opportunities for the Youth

Giving all children and youths the opportunity to thrive in the United States must be given priority (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2015). It, therefore, indicates that safeguarding the health of the children is critical. While it is impossible to guarantee material equality for all children across the country, it is within the power of the relevant authorities to ensure that each child has an opportunity to thrive. However, this is not always the case as most children and juveniles do not still have equal opportunities. Many children live in families with numerous disadvantages where there is a combination of risk factors such as low educational attainment, domestic violence, and child abuse (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2015). The vulnerabilities have significant implications since such children are likely to enter both the juvenile justice and out of home care systems. As a result, it is important to have collaboration between the juvenile justice system and out of home care system. Justice reinvestment approach is also critical in creating equal opportunities among the youths in the United States (Tolan et al, 2013).

Justice reinvestment directs resources from conventional correctional systems and reinvests them into programs that emphasize early intervention and prevention. According to studies, juveniles who have been given custodial sentences are more likely to re-offend than the youths who are kept in community-based settings. Juvenile detention proves to be expensive as well as ineffective. Justice reinvestment takes this issue on board and channels money that would have been spent on young detention on other programs that are more effective and gives all the youth equal opportunities (Tolan et al, 2013).

Local problems call for local solutions through engaging directly with the community as a whole with the inclusion of young people. Hearing the voices of vulnerable children ensures that all the children have the opportunity to not just surviving but thriving as well. The Strong national focus must be established on intervention, diversion, and prevention as this will be critical in ensuring that children are subjected to equal opportunities irrespective of their race and delinquencies.


Bartollas, C. L., & Schmalleger, F. J. (2014). Juvenile delinquency. Prentice Hall.

Burfeind, J., & Bartusch, D. J. (2015). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Routledge.

Petrosino, A., Turpin‐Petrosino, C., Hollis‐Peel, M. E., & Lavenberg, J. G. (2013). 'Scared Straight'and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. The Cochrane Library.

Ryan, J. P., Williams, A. B., & Courtney, M. E. (2013). Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism. Journal of youth and adolescence, 42(3), 454-465.

Siegel, L. J., & Welsh, B. C. (2016). Juvenile delinquency: The core. Nelson Education.

Taylor, R. (2014). Juvenile justice: Policies, programs, and practices. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Tolan, P., Henry, D., Schoeny, M., Bass, A., Lovegrove, P., & Nichols, E. (2013). Mentoring interventions to affect juvenile delinquency and associated problems: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 9(10).

Thompson, W. E., & Bynum, J. E. (2016). Juvenile delinquency: A sociological approach. Rowman & Littlefield.

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