The intentional narrow definition of torture and Geneva protections by Executive Order 13440 permits the use of interrogation techniques that the United States Government would not use on its soldiers. The structure of it was purposefully reasoned to deny and prevent any right of action from accused individuals. Additionally, the directive diverges from the responsibilities of the Uniform Code of Military Justice and Army Field Manual to which American soldiers are trained (Rosso et al., 2011). The designation of unlawful enemy combatants in the policy does not align either with the third or fourth Geneva Convention to which prisoners of war have the right to protection. The decree was not justified to be issued, and it only degrades the country’s moral authority internationally.
Significantly, President Clinton’s Executive Order 12938, Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction was an effective counter-terrorism and anti-terrorism approach due to the ability to help convince countries from going nuclear. Moreover, the directive has tremendously contributed to the restructuring of crisis management, provision of emergency relief and apprehension of terrorists (Tsui, 2014).
The PATRIOT Act serves to protect the U.S. against terrorist attacks and other externa aggressions. The increase in cyber-attack should lead to changes in the country’s policies by re-focusing on rogue states such as North Korea, Iran, and China who sponsor their citizens to steal information of U.S. industries. The approach will be crucial for the security of the nation th ugh the integration of Patriot Act’s roving wiretaps extension. Consequently, there will be better intelligence collection which has proved to be an effective way of preempting several terrorist plots.
The United States immigration law on the entry of immigrants needs to be re-evaluated. Previous studies have indicated that immigration benefits to the country outweigh the costs. The pool of diverse skills which keep the nation’s workforce flexible increasing productivity cannot be understated. According to Walton and Rockoff (2013), the 1990s flow of highly skilled immigrants to the country is directly linked to the rise of innovation. They notably do recognize that 44% of America’s medical scientists are also foreign-born. It is essential for policymakers to structure immigration reform not to deter it but to take advantage of it while mitigating the costs (Walton " Rockoff, 2013).
Rosso, E., Myers, A., Parsons, B., Warner, J., Steigelman, T., " Tucker, M. et al. (2011). Naval Law Review, Volume 57, 2009. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center.
Tsui, C. (2014). Framing the threat of catastrophic terrorism: Genealogy, discourse and President Clinton’s counterterrorism approach. International Politics, 52(1), 66-88. doi: 10.1057/ip.2014.36
Walton, G., " Rockoff, H. (2013). History of the American economy.