The French Revolution’s impact on the rest of the world

The French Revolution (2008), which was retrieved from the French National Archive, should be utilized as the primary source of reference. Due to the historic French Revolution, which resulted in the abolition of the French ruling class, the period from 1789 to 1794 is one of the most important in European history. The French Revolution, which lasted for more than 50 years, began in the year 1789. When King Louis XVI convened a conference with the Estates general, he had not raised enough money and needed more (The French National Archives. 4). Due to the high taxes levied, the French people refused to follow their King’s directives and instead displayed their wrath and desperation. This wave quickly led to widespread hysteria leading to peasants burning castles, exploiting and looting property belonging to tax collectors, property owners and the seigniorial elite. By doing so, the French people razed and restructured France’s socio-political climate by deracinating centuries old traditions and establishments such as the existing feudal structure and absolute monarchy.
The secondary sources to be used include Andress David’s Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution (2014), Schwartz’s book titled The French Revolution: Terror and Triumph (2013) and The French Revolution in Global Perspective (2013) by Suzanne Desan. Among the key factors to be explored by the secondary sources includes the institution of the National assembly, invasion of the Bastille, eradication of feudalism, writing of the first constitution and revolution caused by The church (Schwartz 45). In addition, events discussed include colonial uprisings, execution of King Louis XVI, and formation of the first republic, and declaration of rights of man (Andress 45).
The History of the French Revolution
According to the French National Archives (2008), The French Revolution narrates the history surrounding the French revolution and the history behind it. The French Revolution is the most violent and the most significant revolution in European History. It traces its origin in the social structure of the West among other causes. Wealthy commoners (bourgeoisie) were increasingly becoming prosperous hence; they rejected exclusion from political power and position of honor. The peasants’ standard of living was improving which in turn they retaliated from supporting the feudal system. Philosophies influenced the French people as at the time theories and ideas culminated the era. The government’s bankruptcy caused by the French participation in the American Revolution contributed to the eruption of the revolt. Economic crisis associated with the high population in France resulted to restlessness. The French monarchy eventually was unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures leading to the French Revolution. The church was massively derailed by the developments. The church was the landowner at the time, owning an approximate of 10% of the land in the kingdom was exempted from payment of tax (Schwarz 45). People resented the church hence, necessitating wider revolt.
1789 saw the commencement of the Revolution that lasted till 1794. King Louis XVI bankruptcy led to the calling of the meeting of the Estates General in order to solve the crisis by leaving a new land tax. There were three estates; the first comprised of the clergy, the second comprised of nobility and the third estate comprised of the middle class and the lower class (Suzanne 8). The meeting convened by the king however turned into a protest. In the end, the third estate declared itself a ‘National Assembly’ that would represent the people. In July, the same year, the Paris mob stormed the Bastille fortress in uproar due to lack of food from poor harvests and poor living conditions in annoyance against the King and the government. Prisoners escaped and only five were found which marked the hostility at the time. In August, the National Assembly enforced the Declaration of the Rights of the Citizen, which stipulated universality in the application of rights inspired by Enlightenment thinking. Eventually the King and his family were forced to move from Versailles (the Royal palace) to Paris. Tension increased and massive shortage of food contributed to the increasing mobs in the Paris streets. The following years featured political rivalry between the liberals and the right wing supporters of the monarchy. In 1791, the Legislative Assembly members joined various political clubs such as Feuillants (Suzanne 3). In 10 August 1792, a crowd stormed the Tuileries Palace resulting to the legally elected commune replacing the insurrectionary commune. The commune pressured the Assembly to suspend Louis XVI and election was pushed for the drawing of a new constitution leading to the formation of the National Convention. Mass arrest of royalist sympathizers led to massacres in September to which approximately 2000 prisoners were killed (Suzanne 10). The Convention abolished the monarchy was and the republic formed, the king was charged for treason to which the royalists resisted (Suzanne 10). After the execution of the king in 1793, a wider revolt emerged as a notable resistance was notable even abroad, against France. Power struggle tore the Convention as it tried to fight the foreign wars.
Terror and Triumph
According to Schwartz, Heather E, The French Revolution: Terror and Triumph the period came with extreme inhumane activities including executions. Wars against Prussia and Austria had started earlier on and France declared war against the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch. War emanated as other countries also declared war against France. The purpose of these military reactions was to protect the country from foreign invasion. These countries were fighting against the extreme inhumanity and terror that was happening in France. 1.8 million People approved a democratic constitution in 1793 (Schwartz 6). The constitution was progressive in particular ways especially through the establishment of the Universal male suffrage. However, its suspension came too soon even before it could be reinforced. Robespierre and the Commission of Public Safety used the soldiers to stabilize the economy. Robespierre seemingly contradicted the changing strategy and embarked on the Reign of terror. Democracy was neglected and the Convention used dictatorship in its operations. Agencies such as the Revolutionary Tribunal, committees for instance the Committee of Public Safety were the tools to reinforce dictatorship (Skocpol 23). The effort of these few men in power in attempt to restore the country and wage war at a time of crisis dominated the government. A large number of suspects were arrested and thousands of people were executed. Advocates of ultra-revolutionaries, worship of goddess of reason, indulgent among other idealists were executed, Christianity was eradicated, and a new calendar was introduced. The French army removed the foreign invaders and the economy was stabilized. These killings were mainly under the orders of Robespierre who was later arrested and executed in 1794 since at the time his actions were unjustifiable (Andress30).
Skocpol, Theda. States and social revolutions: A comparative analysis of France, Russia and China, analyzes and compares there states and their revolution to bring changes on political, social, and economic aspects. The author concentrates on France, Russia, and China, which focused on changes that would change their territories. The ideals of liberty differed in each although the states experienced similar occurrences such as conflicts, violence, and conquest. The source reveals that despite the countries being geographically far apart, they share a historical occurrences leading to transformation.
Andress, David in The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution, outlines that France’s military success resulted to lessened domestic measures and reduction of terror excesses. The defeat of the associated army in Battle of Fleurus led to their extraction from the Austrian Netherlands. These dramatic victories contributed to the downfall of alliance against France by Prussia among other countries. In 1795, Basel made peace with France and thereafter Spain.
Impacts of the French Revolution
The French Revolutionary war had a huge impression on France, Europe and the world at large. It ended feudalism, brought individual freedom, and made human history to have a new face. In France, the slogan after the revolution was ‘liberty, equality and fraternity’ (Andress101).The church lost its property and leaders such as bishops, judges and politicians were voted in by the people. The army lost its power as the power and military control fell under the new regime while politics, society, ideas among other significant factors were shaped for more than a century (Acemoglu 35). Religion and charity faced great destruction as its property were acquired by its enemies, the church leaders executed, and effort to de-Christianize France was pushed (Rosenthal 439). Although it did not fully succeed, the positive impact is that the Protestants and the Jews attained equal rights. Seizure of the charitable foundations massively disrupted schools, hospitals among other institutions. The disintegration of large estates controlled by the church led to development of independent farmers. Harvest taxation ended and the peasants got freedom. Small-scale entrepreneurs flourished and the France’s economy gradually improved (Hunt 39).The end of the royal rule led to constitutionalism Napoleon as an emperor set up a constitutional system that enabled permanent equality of France under the law. Communist thought was picked up and the idea spread around the world. The revolution enhanced unity and nationalism in France.
 Suzanne Desan et al. eds in her book The French Revolution in Global Perspective highlights on the impact of the revolution on other countries. Some countries such as Belgium adopted the French rule and enforced equal legal rights among other rules. The promotion of commerce and capitalism in France enhanced the economy of these countries. The French Revolution polarized American politics however; treaties were signed with Napoleon to increase the size of the United States (Desan34). The death of the thousands of people and the executions influenced the transformative self-identity and development of rights and privileges.
Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent. In the article “The Fruits of Revolution: Property Rights, Litigation, and French Agriculture, 1700-1860, highlights the reforms of the revolution by examining the causes of historical divergence of the properties of peasants in France and Britain. French revolution played a big role in economic development enabling many people to sustain their families. When peasants were allowed to farm their lands and control their harvest, they were able to sustain themselves leading and became more prosperous (Rosenthal 440). This source helps to understand some of the advantages of the French revolution despite its negative impacts such as deaths and destruction of property.
Acemoglu, Daron, et al. The consequences of radical reform: The French Revolution is a source that focuses on the consequences of radical reforms brought about by the French Revolution. The French Empire implemented reforms that aimed at liberating the economy and improving the political and social landscape. By the end of the revolution period, there were many notable changes both positive and negative. Some of the positive consequence of the revolution includes improvement in agricultural production and rights to own lands. The negatives include deaths, property destruction, displacement of people, and many injuries.
Hunt, Lynn Avery. Politics, culture, and class in the French Revolution highlights the experiences during the French Revolution in the cultural, political, and class aspects. According to the author, the year 1789 is one of the most important in French history. Modernization of the nation can be traced back to the era since it facilitated changes in different aspects.
The sources analyzed, portray clearly that the French Revolution played a vital role in changing the face of the world. It came with establishment of precedent such as democratic institution of elections, government representation, and constitution. Just like the American Revolution, this up rise was influenced by enlightenment ideals and concepts such as sovereignty and demand for human rights. In fact, the war was marked by the execution of King Louis XVI. Therefore, the paper seeks to explore the history, regime, chronological happenings, and the vast impacts of the French Revolutionary war. It is therefore evident that the French Revolution had incredible influence on the outlook in the modern era, as all radical movements looked back into the French Revolution for instance the Russian Revolution. Democratic ideas spread through the world prompting the understanding of socio-political understanding of the human evolution.

Works Cited
Primary Source
The French Revolution (2008), Obtained from the French National Archive.
Secondary Sources
Acemoglu, Daron, et al. The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution. No. w14831. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009.
Andress, David. The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution. 2014. Print.The French National Archives. The French Revolution. Crown. (2008).
Hunt, Lynn Avery. Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution. Vol. 1. Univ of California Press, 2004.
Schwartz, Heather E. The French Revolution: Terror and Triumph. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 2013. Print.
Skocpol, Theda. States and social revolutions: A comparative analysis of France, Russia and China. Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent. “The Fruits of Revolution: Property Rights, Litigation, and French Agriculture, 1700-1860.” The Journal of Economic History 50.02 (1990): 438-440.
Suzanne Desan et al. eds. The French Revolution in Global Perspective (2013), pp. 3, 8, 10.

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