The episode from the History of Britain

Since the Industrial Revolution

Since the industrial revolution began in Britain a century before it did in any other country, it is safe to say that it was the first country in the world to go through it. A number of social, economic, and natural factors contributed to the industrial revolution in Britain, which eventually led to the country being known as the birthplace of the industrial revolution. (Mokyr 184).

The country's high population supplied the necessary labor for industries, which in turn sparked an agricultural revolution. A wealthy layer of citizens also existed after trade, and they invested in new technologies to boost their prosperity, which sparked the industrial revolution. Economic conditions, which fueled industrial revolution, included the fact that Britain had huge investment capital garnered from trade. Furthermore, Britain was the only country during the 17th century that used to provide business personnel with credit to enable them to equip their factories. On the aspect of natural preconditions, Britain had several natural resources including coal that was used to provide energy to factories and iron, which was utilized in manufacturing new machines (Mokyr 203).

In conclusion, the presence of all these social, economic and natural factors at the same place and at the same time enabled Britain to become the home of industrial revolution.

The American Civil War and its Impact

The American Civil War significantly transformed the country regarding nation building in all aspects of human life ranging from political, social and economic issues. The Civil War strengthened the political structures of the nation since it marked the end of slavery through the enactment of the 13th Amendment by the Congress. Socially, the Civil war helped in building a country where every citizen felt fully and equally included in nation matters. For instance, the war enabled everyone who had been born in the US to be considered as a citizen regardless of whether they were black or white. Additionally, the War also enabled all male citizens to enjoy voting rights irrespective of their ethnicity (Randall and Donald 59). Women also benefited immensely from the Civil War as their rights gained momentum and they could be employed and control their own lives just like men. Before the Civil War, women were meant to play traditional domestic roles and be subordinate to men, but this changed after the war as they started to enjoy recognition just like men. The Civil War also led to advancement in the medical field through the introduction of modern medicine and medical services such as ambulances.

In conclusion, though the Civil War led to the deaths of 620000 soldiers, it significantly transformed the country in all aspects of human life. The resolutions, rules, and laws made after the war led to advancements that made the U.S. stronger than it was initially.

European Imperialism and Eurocentrism

The political stability enjoyed by European nations in the 17th and 18th centuries led to the emergence of renewed interests in imperialist endeavors. European imperialism was reflected in the manner in which the Europeans boasted of their imperial glory, which resulted in the development of a notion meant to show their superiority. Britain, France, and Germany became possessed with colonialism in the late 17th and early 18th centuries since they thought that they would be considered as great if they colonized other countries. Since Europe enjoyed political, military and economic strength which was not the case in other countries, there emerged the notion that the white man had the authority to forcefully spread their ideas with other people and more so the Africans. The Europeans, therefore, took advantage of their strength to justify their imperialistic ideas in foreign countries. Additionally, imperialism was reflected in the popular culture of Europe during the age of exploration as most Europeans traveled in the spirit of adventure. As they moved across Africa and Asia, the Europeans were able to display their new technologies, which enabled them to take charge of the countries they visited.

In conclusion, European imperialism reflected Eurocentrism, which was a powerful discourse indicating that the white man was more superior in both culture and race when compared to the black man.

Germany's Defeat in World War 1

Germany’s defeat in World War 1 came as a result of a combination of factors, which weakened the military strength and ultimately led to its surrender. The entry of the USA into World War I was one of the critical factors, which led to Germany’s defeat in the battle (Glantz and House 13). The British morale in the war was boosted following the entry of the USA since this meant the army would receive more fighting materials and supplies. Therefore, the British military was reenergized and started fighting with morale and inspiration from the USA. The naval blockade that was instituted by the Royal Navy in 1914 was also another significant reason that led to Germany’s defeat in the war. The blockade resulted in a deficiency of food supplies, which led to starvation all over Germany. Both the civilians as well as the army succumbed to ailments because there was severe malnutrition which further weakened the military (Glantz and House 64). Moreover, the failure of the Schlieffen plan sealed Germany’s defeat in World War I. The initial plan was changed in the last minutes, which led to confusion among the troops. This situation created an opportunity for more British troops to cross German ports with ease, which ultimately outnumbered German military.

Conclusively, though German defeat in the war came as a result of the combination of several factors, the entry of the USA into the war was the most significant factor. The U.S. involvement in the war boosted British morale through new supplies and materials, which made the battle a lot easier to win.

Predictions of the Second World War

In his essay “The Souls of White Folk,” Dubois saw a probable outbreak of a Second World War, which would majorly result due to White man’s rule in Africa and Asia. Du Bois supports his predictions based on a couple of factors, which continued to thrive even after the end of the First World War. For instance, Du Bois argues that World War II would break out due to the injustice served to the people of color in the world and more so the Africans. He claims that the colonies Germany had were handed to other colonial powers, which denied them independence, could have instigated a second world war. Additionally, Du Bois disputes the fact that the First World War was a battle meant to promote democracy and driven by self-determination. He argues that the war was started by countries, which aimed at colonizing others, and hence a Second World War would have been unavoidable. Moreover, Du Bois predicts the eruption of the Second World War due to racism and oppression that was being subjected to dark-skinned races of the world. He argues that the white man was considering the black people lesser human beings, which made it easier for him to overlook the black people’s suffering.

In conclusion, Dubois saw a probable Second World War due to factors such as imperialism, colonialism, and racism that was being subjected to the dark-skinned population.

Persecution of the Jewish Community in Europe

The Jewish community was immensely persecuted in Europe and neighboring countries not only because of their religion but also because of their race. Europe played the most considerable role in the persecution of the Jews more so in the mid-14th century when Jews were taken as scapegoats and tortured through beatings, massacres, and forced religion (Longerich 16). The Black Death epidemic marked the beginning of Jews' persecution in Europe, as it was rumored that the Jews had caused the disease after they deliberately poisoned the wells. Though Pope Clement VI tried to act as their defense, the rumors continued spreading, and more Jews were burnt alive even in cities where the plague had not affected. Germany also played an enormous role in the Jewish persecution since the Jews were forced to wear a badge for identification and those who disobeyed were burnt alive or massacred. England also played a crucial role in Jews' persecution when King Edward I expelled all the Jews from the country and took most of their properties. Other European countries such as Austria and Hungary also expelled the Jews from their land and sold their possessions, which further increased Jews' suffering (Longerich 58).

Conclusively, Jews were mostly persecuted because of their religion, which was considered anti-Judaism, and this marked the beginning of their suffering all over Europe and the neighboring countries.

The US Acquisition of the Atomic Bomb

The United States’ fear that Germany was in the process of developing a nuclear program is what led them to acquire an atomic bomb before the Germans. The United States received information that the Germans were developing a nuclear program in 1939 and the U.S. started fearing that Germany was slowly overtaking them in technology and military strength. This forced the U.S. to rush in developing an atomic bomb because they believed that whoever developed the bomb first would ultimately win World War II. Though the information about Germany developing a nuclear program was still not verified, the U.S. did not take any chances since Germany led the world in physics. Additionally, Germany had many scientists and engineers capable of developing an atomic bomb. The U.S. quickly launched the Manhattan project, which was meant to develop the nuclear weapons. Following Germany's defeat in the Second World War, the U.S. captured 88 Nazi German scientists who provided with Germany’s wartime technology, which deemed Germany’s chances of developing the atomic bomb. Additionally, the U.S. allies captured ten more German scientists; this case gave the U.S an opportunity to develop the nuclear weapon before the Germans.

Conclusively, it is a fact that the U.S. extra caution on the possibility of Germany developing a nuclear program was the main driving force, which enabled them to develop the bomb before the Germans. Furthermore, the U.S. invested a lot of capital to the tune of $30 billion to fasten the process of developing the bomb.

The Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine

The Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine present the same litany of measures in the attempt to contain communism. Truman Doctrine was introduced by President Harry Truman who argued that Greece and Turkey needed to get assistance from friendly nations or else they fall victims to subversion. The doctrine stated that the USA would freely help those people in countries threatened by communism. The Marshall Plan of 1947 enhanced the ideals contained in the Truman Doctrine when George Marshall gave economic aid to countries in West Europe. The funds were to help the countries to rebuild their economy and infrastructure destroyed after the Second World War. The Marshall plan revolved the idea that capitalism was better than communism as it would help in rebuilding countries severely affected by the Second World War.

In conclusion, the Marshall plan was indeed an aspect of the Truman doctrine in its application. The Marshall plan upheld the ideal in the Truman Doctrine that there was the need to do away with communism and more support was to be channeled towards promoting capitalism.

The Anti-War Sentiment and the Vietnam War

The Anti-War Sentiment, just like the Civil Rights Movement of 1960, remains to be one of the most divisive forces in U.S. history. The Anti-War movement was comprised of various parties with diverse interests, but all were united in opposing U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The Anti-War Sentiment came into being because of a combination of factors (Hall 33). For instance, there was the presence of Marxist college professors who encouraged students to protest against the war. The students, who happened to be liberal-minded and desired for a restructured American society, were vocal in denouncing the use of nuclear weapons in the Vietnam War. Nevertheless, the Free Speech Movement continued to attract more students to uphold the Anti-War Sentiment, arguing that it could bring change through the organization. Additionally, only less than 35% of the citizens were in support of the U.S. involvement in the war and, hence, groups of people engaged themselves in civil disobedience and demonstrations in favor of the Anti-War Sentiment.

In conclusion, the U.S. intervention in the Vietnam War significantly increased the casualties, which resulted in more people believing that the U.S. involvement in the war was a mistake.

James Baldwin's Message of Hope

The quote by James Baldwin, “We can make America what America must become," is a quote of hope to his nephew as well as other Negro young men who are still figuring out who they are and why the Whites treat them differently. In his quote, Baldwin means that the African Americans need not treat the Whites with bitterness but need to show them kindness and love. By doing so, the Whites will, in return, start treating the Blacks with respect. Baldwin means that the African Americans have the most significant role in reshaping American society since they are the oppressed. Furthermore, the Whites are contented as they are considered more superior, and hence, they would not initiate change.

In conclusion, it is a fact that Baldwin’s message remains relevant and applicable in the American society, since it points out to the fact that violence and racism are not valid options for gaining power.

Works Cited

Glantz, David M., and Jonathan M. House. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped

Hitler. University Press of Kansas, 2015.

Hall, Simon. Rethinking the American anti-war movement. Routledge, 2012.

Longerich, Peter. Holocaust: the Nazi persecution and murder of the Jews. OUP Oxford, 2010.

Mokyr, Joel. "Entrepreneurship and the industrial revolution in Britain." The invention of

Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from ancient Mesopotamia to modern times (2010): 183-210.

Randall, James G., and David Donald. The Civil War and Reconstruction. Pickle Partners

Publishing, 2016.

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