The Black Death

People in the Middle Ages held that illness was brought on by sin or God's displeasure, so they thought that the Black Death was brought on by his wrath. People responded to the issue by turning to God for prevention because they believed that since God caused the disease, He could also put a stop to it. Others, however, maintained that the sickness originated from a natural or remote cause, such as poor air quality, an offensive odor, or the movement of the planet. (Langer 114). Instead of turning to God, people have turned to nature for assistance, and their remedies include lighting fragrant wood. Additionally, they avoided activities such as sex, bath, exercise and certain diets to prevent the bad air from entering the pores of the body. Finally, some thought that the condition arose because the enemies had poisoned the wells and people reacted to the situation by avoiding drinking water from such sources (Langer 114). The reactions show poor medical knowledge; doctors did not understand the disease and had limited capacity to prevent or cure it.

Psychological and Demographic Effect of the Disease in Europe

The illness impacted people psychologically for hundred years as it resulted in tremendous emotional shock of watching the ravaging plague kill thousands of family members. The experience was considerably traumatizing and created state of depression as well as panic which spread across the entire continent. Demographically, illness is known to have killed more than 75 million people across the continent (Langer 114). Older males were more susceptible, and children between the age of 10 and 15 were an at lower risk of dying (Langer 114). In other words, the mortality rate increased with age.

Extent to which the Climate and Disease Factors Produced Social and Economic Changes after

To a large extent, climate and disease factors played a significant role in changing economic in the later middle age. For example, there was the considerable rise in wages and prices due to a shortage of goods and foods, greater value was placed on labor, and farming land was used for pasturing which boosted cloth and woolen industry (Langer 114). Workers could charge more money for their services since there was reduced competition. Also, the peasant moved to urban areas. Socially, the diseases disrupted the customs of daily life since there was little association with those that had contracted it already. The sick persons were discriminated and there was constant blame between the Jews and Christians. Further, the level of poverty increased due to limited of resources (Langer 114). Some of the family lines disappeared because they were left with no heir.

Rebirth, Renewal: Popes and Prejudice

What the Renaissance Scholars Hoped to Learn from Classical Past

The Renaissance scholars studied the classical text hoping to understand the human body and how it functions as well as people's thinking process. They were fascinated by the classical literature and sought them out expected to change the contemporary thought and allow new mindset after the middle ages (Cross, Jon and David 56). They read the text focusing on human actions, decision, creation, and religion. Also, they wanted to be aware of history, cultural gaps and models of thought by comparing the ancient city-states and Renaissance Italy.

Meaning of the Term 'Rebirth'

The term refers to the advancement of learning during the middle age. In other words, it does imply there Renaissance society experiences a rebirth of the classical paganism and learning. The word only means learning characterized more enlightenment since the period between 1350 and 1550 (Cross, Jon and David 56). The term refers to a total change of culture for what Renaissance saw as decadent and "barbarous" learning of the middle ages.

New ideologies that weakened the Primacy of Religion in lives of Many Europeans

Humanism and individualism were the primary new ideologies that weakened the primacy of religion in the lives of most people in Europe. Further, Renaissance showed a greater amount of classical techniques (Cross, Jon and David 56). For example, they believed that God gave humans a chance and it was people's duty to do the best and morally right actions. Humanism became the practice and ethical theory that placed importance on science, human fulfillment and scientific inquiry in the real world (Cross, Jon and David 56).

Important Artist or Theorists in the Renaissance Era

The most important artist during the Renaissance era includes Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli, Donatello, Sandro, Botticelli, Titian, Giotto, Filippo Brunelleschi, Carbaggio, Masaccio, Giorgio Vasari, Donato Bramante, Paolo Veronese, Lorenzo Ghiberti and Carlo Crivelli among others. On the other hand, the well-known theorists are Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei.

Human Nature

Definition of Humanism

The term refers to the predominant intellectual, social and philosophical movement that occurred between 1400 and 1650 (Austin 1). The proponent believed in a body of learning and humanity studies that consisted of imitating the classical culture of the ancient Greece and Rome.

Christian Humanism and How it helped Prepare the Way for the Protestants Reformation

Christian humanism was Renaissance movement that focuses on revising the interest in humanity with the Christian faith. The proponent impacted art, change religious scholarship, helped encourage Protestant Reformation and shaped personal spirituality. Christian humanism prepared the way for the Protestant Reformation by objecting the manner in which the church controlled what people were able to study and publish and limited the kinds of things they could discuss among each other (Austin 1). Christian humanist combined the classical learning with the objective of reforming the church. Erasmus is one of the most known humanists who helped to translate the New Testament. At the same time, they achieved reformation through education of the ruling classes. Similarly, the goal was achieved by rediscovering the Bible. Christian humanists studied the ancient languages which allowed them to read the Bible and provide newfound accuracy as well as enthusiasm (Austin 1). As such, equipped with knowledge and ancient tongues, they poised to renew Christian society. Reformation used humanist ideas about the Bible and relied heavily on scholarly achievement through the acquired language skills, attack through popular ignorance and obscurantism. As the movement continued to spread in Europe, the Protestantism shared a vast number of characteristics with humanists, especially, due to the precise definition of the content of the Bible.

Determining if Erasmus Work paved the way for Luther's Break with Rome and Catholicism

When an individual reads the account of the work of Erasmus, one quickly notices that Erasmus laid the foundation for Luther's reformation and breaking from Catholicism. In particular, Luther agreed with Erasmus because they both wanted a reformation of the Catholic Church because there seemed to be corruption in the church (Austin 1). Although originally Luther wanted to reform the Catholic Church, he broke from it because people insisted that he had changed his belief about faith. Erasmus work significantly influenced the act.

Happy Colombus Day

Characteristics of the Indigenous Empire Present in the Americas before Arrival of European

One of the major characteristics displayed by the indigenous people is that they had a cultural and racial unity that never existed among other people at the time. The Native Americans saw themselves as a diverse group. Also, it is imperative to indicate that some of the indigenous people valued agricultural activities for thousands of years with a large array of plant species being domesticated, for example, bred and squash. At the same time, they created a large sedentary chiefdom in some of the regions and had advanced state-level societies with large-scale organized cities as well as monumental architecture. In terms of culture, present literature shows that Native American did not have one universal religion or spiritual system. Most of their practices involved ritualists, traditional healers, mystics, and singers among other specialists. Additionally, their music and art were almost monophonic, and most of these included drumming with a combination of other instruments like flutes. Native American life also includes a unique view of health as they knew what they were discovering could play important roles in healing processes. The lifestyle is further characterized by love for nature and conservation.

Strengths and Weakness of the Indigenous Empires

Some of the major strengths of the indigenous empires include the traditional Indian medicine, healing, and spiritual practices. In other words, they use herbal methods to relieve pain. Similarly, the family remained one of the core strengths of the diverse culture of indigenous people. Individuals also respected their traditional practices which contributed to their survival and the community protected the family clans (Nunn and Nancy 166). Additionally, the Native American respected the environment ties and the land as well as the balance between them and the animals. The primary weaknesses regard depopulation by diseases. In other words, there was little understanding of the cause of diseases and their cure. People were constantly attacked by bacteria and virus, and traditional healer had little knowledge of how to stop them. Also, they were easily susceptible to biological warfare, violence, and exploitation as well as displacement by their enemies (Nunn and Nancy 166).

The Colombian Exchange and who benefited the Most

The Colombian exchange was a widespread transfer of animals, plants, and ideas. Americans received bananas, chickens, oranges, lemons, rice, barley, coffee, peaches, sheep, wheat, cabbages, cows, sugarcane, pigs, horses, olives, tulips, and carnations from Europe (Nunn and Nancy 164). On the other hand, the American exported avocados, cacao, marigolds, quinine, vanilla, corn, cotton, sunflower, peanuts, potatoes and tomatoes to Europe (Nunn and Nancy 164). The Europeans benefited most from the exchange due to their institutional and political structures.

Montezuma's Revenge

How Diaz portray Cortes and his interactions with Moctezuma

Diaz portrays Cortes and his interactions with Moctezuma as an honest and trustworthy person. He achieves the goal by giving him a gift, necklace made from class (Del Castillo 1567). Dona plays a significant role in their exchange by acting a person who handled him off for him.

Ways Diaz's account colored his preconceptions and beliefs as a European in a foreign land

Diaz's account colored his own beliefs and preconception as a European in the foreign land by often praising Montezuma in his account (Del Castillo 1567). For example, he tells him that people have been speaking evil about him without truth in what they said.

Motivated by Diaz and other Conquistadors and determination of what the new world had to offer

The need to search for the gold and free world are some of the major factors that motivated Diaz and the other conquistadors. In particular, they had a desire to start afresh and saw the situation a chance to fulfill their wishes for acquiring enormous wealth (Del Castillo 1567).

Works Cited

Austin, Cline. Humanism and Reformation. ThoughtCo. Feb. 2017, Accessed 26 Sep 2017

Cross, Robert G., Jon A. Higbie, and David Q. Cross. "Revenue management's renaissance: A rebirth of the art and science of profitable revenue generation." Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 50.1 (2009): 56-81.

Del Castillo, Bernal Diaz. "The true history of the conquest of New Spain." Vol. 2. Lulu. Com, 1910.

Langer, William L. "The black death." Scientific American 210.2 (1964): 114-121.

Nunn, Nathan, and Nancy Qian. "The Columbian exchange: A history of disease, food, and ideas." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 24.2 (2010): 163-188.

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