State and Municipal Government

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The numerous policies and initiatives adopted by governments have a major effect on the economic, social, and cultural facets of their respective geographical regions. These indicators decide how individuals communicate with the community and the political drive that stimulates development and growth. The paper would discuss the parallels and disparities between New York City, Louisiana, and California regarding services, strategies, and procedures. For the policies and services that have worked and had an influence on the people, the goal is to assess and decide the most successful administration. California, New York, and Louisiana have very distinctive governing structures making each government unique with the varied political structures.
Government Structure, Governing Powers, and Economic Situation
California
The California constitution identifies two forms of counties, namely the charter and general law. The state law depicts the duties and number of elected county officials (California State Association of Counties, 2014). It guides the general law form of counties. The charter counties possess limited authority, which stipulates the compensation, removal, terms, salary, and election of the governing board. However, the law does not provide for the appointment or election of the district attorney and county assessor and does not give county officials extra powers other than local budgetary regulations and intergovernmental organization.
The Californian constitution allows the county to develop and ensure enforcement of local laws that do not contradict or conflicts with the general federal rules. Unlike the power separation that exists in state and federal governments, the supervisors’ board has both the executive and legislative county powers. Five members, as entailed in the code section, always constitute it. California State is composed of 478 cities that are incorporated and has special districts that are specifically created to perform the specified local proprietary or governmental functions. The cities perform an extensive range of tasks for the citizens. The special districts help in the provision of facilities and services within a specified boundary and are managed by a board (Georgetown Law Library, 2017). The California State also has governmental organizations that are composed of local governments that work together to ensure the facilitation of the research and the drawing up of the plans regarding various areas of improvements such as economic growth, transportation, air quality, waste management, and housing.
California has 58 counties, with the chief executive being the governor who is always elected for a term that lasts four years and may serve for only a maximum of two terms. The dominance of the legislative is mostly held by the Southern California, which is populous at the expense of most of the rural areas. The state’s economy is one of the biggest economies in the United States. It is a world leader in the manufacturing of electronics and computers. The region is also dominant in the television and film, aerospace, viticulture, and the agriculture industries. Despite the booming economy, California is also one of the states with highest rates of poverty. Its government is divided into three branches, namely the judiciary, executive, and the legislature.
Louisiana
The Louisiana government is divided into three main power branches, namely the judiciary, the executive, and legislature. The chief senior executive officer is the governor who can serve for only two terms lasting four years each (Lousiana.gov, 2017). Louisiana has 20 departments six of which are headed by state elected officials. The remaining departments are under the governor and headed by their separate secretary. The former shares the control powers of the executive with other elected state officials. They include lieutenant governor who serves in the circumstances where there is a vacancy in the governor’s office or if one is out of state and is unable to act, as prescribed by the law. There is also the secretary of state who is the chief officer responsible for elections and heads the state department. The attorney general is elected and heads the justice department. There also exists the treasurer who heads the treasury department. Additionally, the forestry and agriculture commissioner is elected and chairs the corresponding department (Lousiana.gov, 2017). There is also the insurance commissioner who is the head of the respective department.
The legislature is constituted of two houses, namely the Senate and the Representative’s House. The former has 39 members, while the latter has a maximum limit of 105 members. Louisiana is among the states with the worst economies in the United States. Agriculture is one of the leading economic activities in the region and provides a source of income to many citizens. Louisiana has several boards as well as the commissions that help in the running of the state. The judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court, the appellate courts, and federal courts.
New York City
The New York City government is constituted under the charter, and it strongly follows the system of mayor-council. The political system adheres to the power separation system divided into the judiciary, executive, and legislature. The mayor who is the chief executive officer heads the executive. It also has various boards, departments, and commissions which operate under the mayor and help in ensuring every city program is well implemented and working (Hierarchy Structures, 2017). The powers of the legislative branch are vested in the council of New York City, which is primarily a unicameral body, which is composed of 51 members. The speaker who is the second most influential person in the city after the mayor chairs the council. The judicial branch of the New York City is composed of the two city courts, civil, criminal, family, surrogate as well as the Supreme Court. The economy of New York City is large and has a steady growth. Technology, financial, healthcare, and real estate sectors are the most significant drivers of this stable situation. The city is also a center of journalism, publishing, and mass media in the whole country. The area is also the preeminent center of arts in the United States.
Cooperation with Federal Government
California
The California government has always cooperated with the federal government in the protection of the environmental programs that are rolled out and supervised by the corresponding agency. The state receives funds from the federal government environmental agency to help in the implementation of projects in Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Merced. California has also enacted policies that regulate the pollution of the environment by the industrial activities, and a vivid example is the green policy.
Louisiana
The Louisiana government cooperated with the federal government in helping the flood survivors in 2016 (Lousiana.gov, 2017). The program was conducted by the emergency management agency of the federal government in collaboration with the state departments, which ensured the entire survivor’s rental assistance, repairs of homes, and other needs related to the disaster. The Louisiana government also cooperates with the federal government in the implementation of environmental protection programs that help in curbing pollution in the country.
New York City
The government of New York City cooperated with the federal government in addressing the issue of homelessness of veterans through a joint program. The latter was designed to help all the living veterans have decent home and was successful, as a few years ago, the supreme authorities announced the end of it. The New York City also cooperates with the federal government in the environmental protection programs.
Governmental Programs, Policies, and Processes
California
The California government was the first state to roll out and implement the paid family leave program that has had tremendous positive impacts on the many citizens of the state. The policy made it easy for many workers to access family leaves, as opposed to the one of the federal government that is unpaid (Boushey & Glynn, 2012). The program allows the family members access to up to six weeks to take care of their new baby and be paid through insurance. The California government also implemented a policy concerning the offenders’ punishment that has a negative impact on the citizens. It has been expensive and promoted overcrowding leading to the dangers of public safety and health.
Louisiana
The Louisiana government implemented a scholarship program that has benefited many people across the state. It has increased access to schooling, ensuring the needy students progressed with education in private establishments. The program has mostly had a positive impact on the minority groups that are now able to access selected public and private schools.
New York City
The mayor of New York City announced the start of a program that will help in the reduction and curbing of extreme heat during summers. The system will be implemented through the cool neighborhoods program that will help reduce the dangers that result from excess heat. The housing authority program that sought to dismantle most of the aging towers has a negative impact on the low-income citizens, as it calls for increased parking fees and other related charges. Such individuals may not afford the increased costs. There has also been the rent regulation policy, which had adverse effects on many people in the New York City.
Success of Governmental Programs, Policies, and Processes
California government implemented many development policies and programs that have made it one of the largest state economies in the country (Koehler & Hogan, 1996). The actions were successful, because each targeted a specific sector of the economy, hence ensuring completely consistent growth of the entire economy. The Louisiana government also implemented the professional development network that helps in the training of school staff members to assist in the expansion of wellness opportunities. The program has been successful, as it has managed to reduce the levels of obesity among children and adults. The New York City enacted laws that governed the smoke-free public places and workplaces. The initiative led to a reduction in the habit among the many youths because of a well-coordinated media campaign and the increment in the funding of tobacco cessation and prevention programs.
The Most Effective Government
New York City has the most efficient government in realizing the needs and wants of its people, as most of the policies and programs are tailored towards addressing the social problems like traffic congestion, drug abuse, summer heat, housing programs, and many more. The New York City economy has also been stable and growing, being one of the biggest in the country which helps in improving the living standards of its population through access to income-generating opportunities.
Conclusion
The governments of California, Louisiana, and New York City have unique structures, governing powers, and the economic situations. New York City is headed by the mayor who is highly effective in responding to the social needs of its citizens as compared to the others. Its government possesses some differences in the executive structures of power from the other two branches. Governors are the top administrators in both California and Louisiana; however, they have some distinct executive features. All levels of government have the same structure in the judicial branch of the executive.

References
Boushey, H., & Glynn, J. (2012). Celebrating the success of California’s Paid Family Leave Act. Retrieved on December 27, 2017 from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/news/2012/09/27/39507/celebrating-the-success-of-californias-paid-family-leave-act/
California State Association of Counties. (2014). County structure and powers. Retrieved on December 27, 2017 from http://www.counties.org/general-information/county-structure-0
Georgetown Law Library. (2017). Local governments. Retrieved on December 27, 2017 from http://guides.ll.georgetown.edu/california-in-depth/local-governments
Hierarchy Structures. (2017). New York City political hierarchy. Retrieved on December 27, 2017 from https://www.hierarchystructure.com/new-york-city-political-hierarchy/
Koehler, G. & Hogan, C. (1996). California economic development programs. Retrieved on December 27, 2017 from https://www.library.ca.gov/CRB/96/11/index.html
Lousiana.gov. (2017). Government. Retrieved on December 27, 2017 from http://louisiana.gov/Government/

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