The Second World War
The Second World War was a brutal conflict that lasted from 1939 until 1945. The conflict spread widely throughout Europe, as well as to eastern Asia and the south Pacific Ocean. The economies and administrations of European countries were significantly impacted by the First World War, and the Russians responded by using communist uprising. The events that led to the Second World War have their roots in the immediate wake of the First World War. The agreement known as the Treaty of Versailles put a stop to the First World War. Treaty of Versailles encompassed a range of provisions, and among these, it included the Germany's acceptance of the responsibility of having caused the First World War (Balsamo 18). Notably, major political changes swept in the entire European region. Fascism was a new idea that was presented in some of the European democracies, and the Nazis oppression profoundly culminated into WWII.
Territorial Expansion and the Second World War
The quest for territorial expansion by some of the Europe nations was one of the major reason that culminated into WW II. Many of the European states particularly Germany and Italy used military aggression to expand their territories. In Italy, for instance, Benito Mussolini wanted to create a New Roman Empire which was to be based around the Mediterranean. Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 and Albania in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War. Italy also invaded Greece after being provoked by the oil embargo placed forward by the League of Nations. Under the rule of Nazi regime, Germany through its ruler, Hitler sought to enlarge its territories together with the need to attain a restoration of the Germany historical boundaries. With rising Hitler's power, Germany resolved to take what was rightfully theirs and had been grabbed during the WW I. Germany registered a population of about 65 million which had drastically diminished after the First World War. Davis reports that Hitler was thirsty of stretching its territories and he began the process in 1935 when Saar region residents joined forces with Germany after having a popular referendum (Midlarsky 9). Saar was under the administration of League of Nations and the move to join Germany spurred political instabilities. Hitler was more determined than ever before to expand Germany. In March 1936, the Germany army occupied the Rhineland which was significantly demilitarized after the WWI. His victory in managing to take over Rhineland was fueled by the failure of the League of Nations. Stalin and Hitler had agreed that they would both invade Poland and divide it among themselves and certainly, Poland was destined to disappear.
Nazi and Fascism and the Second World War
The outcome of the First World War made Germany struggled to have an understanding of how the nation would face the uncertainties of the future. The nation encountered detrimental economic conditions, faced political instabilities, the unemployment level skyrocketed to around 22% and undergone profound social changes. The onset of the global depression in the 1920s led to the collapse of Germany's banking system. In this confusion state, the Nazi Party under the leadership of Hitler made propositions to end the problems. This led to the formation of Nazism and its culmination to the Second World War 20 years later. Germany was angered by the adoption of the Treaty of Versailles which solely communicated that the victors of the First World War were dissecting Germany's future.
Failure of the League of Nations
The failure of the League of Nations was one of the primary factors that significantly contributed to the cause of World War III. The League of Nations was formed after the WW I in 1919. It was an international organization that purposed to foster peace and prevention of war outbreak. The League of Nations was to inhibit the aggressor countries from attacking nations. However, the League of Nations failed, and the exposure of its weakness after failing to prevent Italy's invasion of Ethiopia and other wars made Germany find conducive grounds for executing its plans. Germany, after realizing the weakness of the organization, it decided to demobilize Rhineland for its territorial expansion in the region (Beck and Barros 21). Hitler then ordered the Germany troops in 1935 to go and attempt an attack on Rhineland using empty rifles. The League of Nations faced challenges in executing this policy as the member countries traded with the aggressor countries. This was mainly due to the great depression that had hit the world in the 1920s that made the countries become reluctant in losing their trading partners.
Impacts of the Second World War
The Second World War resulted in many detriments impacts. Germany was defeated in the war, and the Nazi regime was brought to an end. The leaders of the Nazi party were convicted for crimes against humanity. It critically ruined cities of many nations such as German and Japan cities. Besides, prominent Japan military leaders were also convicted for their crimes. Besides, the Japan emperor was temporary put under the American military rule. The economy of many nations crippled. Perhaps, more of the most striking impact of the Second World War was the huge death toll that resulted from it. More than 60 million people were killed in the war and this formed approximately 3% of the total world population in 1940 (Davis 4). Also, many people were injured in the process and millions were left widow and orphans. Advancement in new technologies was appositive impact. For example, the radar was developed by the English which was a significant factor in the development of television. Process in computers and electronics was made and gave a foundation to further developments caused transformation of the world in postwar. More significant, the development of atomic bomb by the American and European scientist was made and led to nuclear power.
Balsamo, Larry T. "Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply". The History Teacher 24, no. 3. 1991.
Davis, David Brion. "World War II and Memory". The Journal of American History 77, no. 2 1990.
Beck Peter J., and James Barros. "The League Of Nations and the Great Powers: 1936-1940.". The American Journal of International Law 66, no. 1.1972.
Midlarsky, Manus I. "Territoriality and the Onset of Mass Violence: The Political Extremism Of Joseph Stalin". Journal of Genocide Research 11, no. 2-3. 2009