Reality consists of each matter and ideas.
Both are components of reality. Reality, according to philosophical concepts, is the true state of the things as they exist in actuality. Reality can be understood as the concept of being. A aspect is said to be real or true if it is or has been or will be. However, there is additionally another way of understanding reality.
When we consider the matters that are comprehensible, existing in our thoughts and can at times be representations as varieties are the ideas. For this reason, philosophers like Aristotle, Plato and Socrates contributed to a great extent in this area. Each had some subjective concepts that he used to make his claims (Davies, Paul, and Niels, 97).
For instance, Plato uses theories, like the universal form theory, also the theories of ideas among others which are to be discussed after that on this paper to affirm the statement that reality consists of both matters and ideas.
Universal Forms Theories and Reality
Considering the Universal form theory, some things are non-physical in form. Some are substantial in nature. These are what Plato referred to as ideas. Ideas in their solid forms are the most accurate representations of reality. Due to the existence of problems in the universality of the philosophical school of thought, other scholars criticized that only matter could be considered as reality. However, the term ideas in the discipline carry more weight as it is not as presented in English diction to mean mental concepts only but an expression of what is. The coined word, ‘idea’ in Greek, δέα can be used with the word ‘shape and form.' Interpreted from the Greek language, to have form and shape would lead us to ‘to have seen.’ It simply means that having an idea of something is having a picture or a representation of something that is. Things that are things that are real, and therefore, reality consists of matter and ideas (Castro et al., 86).
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and Reality
In affirmation to this, Plato’s allegory of the cave leads us to a more understanding of reality about the matter, form and idea. The prisoners in the cave who are unable to turn their heads and see the real objects that are passing behind them. What these prisoners are perceiving is appearance, illusions, and imaginations which are not founded on any particular claim from the real object. For instance, they can see the images and the shadows of people passing behind them. They can see the shadows. Until one prisoner came out of the cave and experienced life in its real form, is the time when he got a grasp the difference between illusions and dream of the actual things with the reality from the real objects he saw, like the sun. The case of the ideas and matter are inseparable, in the cave, what the prisoners had was not the idea. The idea came after one of them went out and explored the real objects. When getting back to save the fellow prisoners, he has an idea of what it is to be free and what is outside the cave while the other still did not have an idea until they went out themselves to meet the real world. From the claim, one has an encounter with the matter, and therefore, idea comes in. All this means that reality consists of matter and ideas (Castro et al., 87).
Reality in the Context of Mind-independent Versus Mind-dependent
Reality consists of matter and ideas. It is mind dependent and independent at various levels. In the article, Philosophy of Mind by Heil and John (2013), When we think of the realist theories of perception, there are some mind-independent realities which we perceive directly as they exist in the world. The mind-independent reality entails the one that truly exists excluding the interpretation of the mind. For instance, the truth of one’s existence. It is the mind-independent reality that you, as self, exist. You don’t have to include your mind in an attempt to think whether you exist as self, or as being. Physical realities are mostly mind-independent realities. However, the mind-dependent realities also have a part in this discussion. For instance, the prove that the body, mind and the soul are one or are different entities can be a case of mind-dependent reality. You cannot exclude your mind from the evaluation of facts on their form. This is because reality consists of matter and idea.
A Real Life Situation
The Trump leadership in the United States of America has a lot of plans on the policy changes. Subjectively to the change, we can see the many prospected changes in, for example, the health care sector, trade, and economics, diplomacy, and armament. All these can be said to be dreams. The matter is approximated to be seen soon in implementation period. However, when we apply the knowledge from the prisoners in the cave in the Allegory theory, we can attest that the Americans have a dream. The dream that is imagined to change the state. However, there has not yet been seen to happen. They are living in the illusion of change and a good America. It subjects the reasoning to mind-independent reality which can be supported by concrete evidence to attest that. It, therefore, means that there is no matter in the dream of the Trumps decisions for change, but the dreams are prospected to be implemented. When the idea is seen prevailing in actions, the thing will be actualized to reality. It, therefore, takes the stand that reality consists of matter and ideas.
In conclusion, reality consists of both matter and ideas. The existence of the various school of thoughts may present different ideas and criticism as truth, or the reality is subjective to questioning and criticism. However, to the consensus of many philosophers, ideas are the most accurate presentation of reality and so does matter (Gulley and Norman, p.26). Both are presented in our mind faculty as reality is supported by facts and beliefs from the phenomenal world. Therefore, matters and ideas are constituents of reality.
- Castro, Andrés Fabián Henao. "Slavery in Plato's Allegory of the Cave: Alain Badiou, Jacques Rancière, and the Militant Intellectual from the Global South." Theatre Survey 58.1 (2017): 86-107.
- Davies, Paul, and Niels Henrik Gregersen, eds. Information and the nature of reality: From physics to metaphysics. Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Gulley, Norman. Plato's Theory of Knowledge (Routledge Revivals). Routledge, 2013.
- Heil, John. Philosophy of mind: A contemporary introduction. Routledge, 2013.