multicultural practices in Europe and Canada

Scientists' general focus on multicultural practices in Europe is on a broad tendency of failure among various nations. Canada, it appears, has not been immune to the drawbacks of multicultural implementation. However, Canada's unique approach to resilience and its extended period of success present a case of policy implementation to promote the rise of multicultural inclusion. In this sense, this study tries to learn about the various measures that Canada has taken to preserve its multicultural legacy, as well as its relationship to the multicultural shift that has swept through Western nations.  Canadian multicultural policy changes have allowed Canadian citizens to have religious freedom and to choose their way of worship. The immigration of large and diverse cultures into Canada also brought with it some religious beliefs and backgrounds. The Canadian government in its bid to cast out the fear of adverse consequences due to one's religious beliefs instituted laws that allowed people to practice their religious beliefs and hold onto them freely.
The multicultural policy in Canada has eliminated cultural barriers and enabled Canadians to participate in the Canadian society fully. The vast cultural diversity in Canada is mostly attributable to the fact that the Canadian citizens are drawn from various backgrounds and country. The government, therefore, encouraged the people to freely interact while at the same time enhancing their cultural practices and beliefs. The intertwining of the various cultures is the source of the unity that seeks to eliminate the differences that might always be posed by cultural barriers.
Multicultural policy change allowed the immigrants to learn and acquire at least one Canadian language. Given that the immigrants such as the Quebec came from varying backgrounds, there was a need to have a central focus upon which the different cultures could integrate. By acquiring a Canadian language, preferably English or French, the immigrants were in a beater position of fitting well into the Canadian social, political and economic life. The integration through acquiring of a Canadian language did not, however, undermine the cultural language of the people still had the freedom to embrace them.
The Policy enhanced support to aggressive and determined cultural groups across Canada to enable them to develop and contribute to Canadian development. The Canadian government in a bid to institute and enhance development needed a well unified and diverse nation that would bear the various skills. Cultural diversity was one of the main pillars of this development as the people were likely to hold varying skills and knowledge depending on their cultural orientation. The Canadian government, therefore, had an input in trying to enhance and bring together the varying groups to merge their culture into one big tool for development.
Canadian Multicultural policy improved unity of Canadians through cultural interchange and integration through social institutions. The Canadian government implemented a policy where the school going population had a broad range of learning institutions to choose from depending on the kind of language was used as a medium of instruction within those learning institutions. Other institutions which brought cultural integration also included churches. BY coming together, it was apparent that the learners and members of the social groups had a chance to interact and exchange their cultural beliefs and convictions. This interaction was considered one of the primary sources of unity.
The multicultural policy has enhanced economic integration of immigrants entering Canada every year. Most of these immigrants came to either strengthen their economic growth or look for better opportunities to improve their economic growth. The immigrants who came into Canada managed to elevate their economic status by working within Canada to achieve economic stability. The contribution of this group to the overall national income was, therefore, imperative in the overall measure of national growth. That was as a result of the increased labour offered by the immigrants.
Multicultural policy in Canada allowed all Canadians the equality to freely pursue opportunities that were available for their growth (Burayidi and Michael, 2015). Sine multiculturalism brings with it so much diversity in the skills and interest of the people; it was easier to enhance growth by allowing the people to freely and willingly to find areas of interest where they could put their skills and expertise. Since Canada offered a broad range of opportunities across the various professions, it was easier for the population to readily find an avenue through which they could promote their economic growth.
The Multicultural policy enhanced the recognition of the minority and protected their full rights in enjoying and practising their cultural heritage. The minority group mostly consisted of immigrants and the people who spoke languages which were not readily identifiable with others. The policy, therefore, came in to enhance the full appreciation of the cultural heritage borne by this group. Earlier on, the minority had suffered from discrimination and an abuse of their rights. By protecting them against any form of intimidation, the minority groups had an excellent room to develop and have economic growth.
Canadian Multicultural policy put in place English and French as the official languages but still enhanced preservation of cultural languages. The English and French language mainly served as a medium for carrying out government business. The language also acted as mean through which the many cultural groups could come together by having a central language. The language did not, however, erode the cultural belief and practices of the people. Multiculturalism still had so much influence on the cultural diversity that was as a result of the coming together of all cultural beliefs.
The multicultural policy change enhanced the equal involvement of all individuals from different cultural backgrounds to fully participate in the development and enhancement of Canadian cultural, political, social and economic development. The policy also provided room to fully try and do away with all the barriers that would lead to Canadians failure to achieving the same involvement. Hitherto multicultural policy implementation, there was much discrimination in the running of affairs of Canada. The change however brought along with it equitable and transparent participation.
Multicultural policy change in Canada also enhanced the protection of all Canadian institutions which fully promotes the social, political, cultural and economic stabilization of Canadian society. Such facilities were used to enhance the unity of broadly diverse cultural groups. Since the Canadian government wanted to improve multiculturalism, improving the operations of these bodies had an implication since the bodies would easily operate and continue helping in the integration process.
The change in the Broadcasting Act which allowed for a 60% broadcasted content to be considered ethnic is also a direct implication of the Multicultural policy change in Canada. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) which is a governmental regulatory agency on media broadcasting was created by the Canadian Parliament to enhance policies that would reflect the cultural diversity all over the country. CRTC has had the mandate to approve licences to TV and Radio stations upon meeting the standards of ethical inclusion in their broadcasting content. The Programming, both visual and audio must be inclusive of transmitted cultural diversity across the whole of Canadian society.
Multicultural Policy Changes Across other Western Nations
In Germany, the multicultural policy had significantly been implemented on a political platform. The German government continued to advocate for total equality on the population. In this regard, the government did not in any way promote political, social and ethnic representation of the people. Through no- participation in the political life of its citizens, the government sought to enhance political equality. The political approach did not, however, achieve success since the Germans felt a sense of neglect by their government regarding their involvement in political and social inclusion.
Even the minority groups in Germany and Netherlands were not spared as they do not receive funding from the German government. This firm stand by these parties had mostly been seen as a means of achieving integration and unity among the citizens by not appearing to be participating in the development of one group at the expense of the other. By enhancing a centrally neutralised role, the government wanted to be seen as promoting a unified agenda by not taking a political side. This government stand, however, became unpopular with the citizens.
Multicultural policies in Netherlands consider integration to consist of a give-and-take situation on the part of the government and the immigrants. The efforts of the administration and the whole society are necessary for achieving the required integration. The immigrants had a duty to respect the Constitution accept the life of the community and have a self-motivation to become a local by learning the local language. It must, however, be noted that the different migrant abilities and knowledge were not harnessed in this plan as the migrants were required to adopt the local culture.
In most western countries, multicultural policies did not enhance to promote intercultural education as part of the curriculum. In Germany for example, the state takes responsibility for the education of its population. It is however not compulsory for refugees to gain even the primary education. The state has not introduced an education system that targets ethnic groups or the minority groups. The education systems in these countries focus more on developing the intellectual competencies of the learners instead of adopting a cultural approach that would give the students a sense of cultural belonging.
Multicultural policies in most western countries, especially in Netherlands, only have a slight inclusion of ethnic representation in the media and broadcasting platform. In order to enhance cultural diversity, the country had the inclusion of foreign content in their broadcast. Most radio stations across the western nations generally broadcast in different foreign languages. The major broadcasters have also begun to embrace cultural inclusion by producing programmes that are aired in various languages to target the minorities mainly.
The Naturalization Act of 1998 in Germany did not provide for dual citizenship. Only minors were allowed to choose which countries to attain residence before reaching the age of 18 years. The basic way of attaining German citizenship was through birth. Those who needed to become citizens by naturalization had to, however, attain certain minimum cultural qualifications. Naturalization could be achieved by passing a German language test and, having a strong knowledge of German values and by accepting to obey German law. If a citizen managed to demonstrate the above and became naturalised, they had to denounce their former citizenship
Norway, New Zealand, Netherland s and Japan have failed to put in place an affirmative action to enhance equality and protection of rights of the minority disadvantaged immigrants. The governments prohibit any form of discrimination to allow for affirmative action. It is, however, interesting to note that the implementation of the affirmative action has failed to be executed efficiently. Despite the Western Governments seeking to enhance universal acceptability in the culturally dynamic world, only about 2% of migrant society takes part in the social, economic and cultural participation of the Western countries.
Multicultural policies across the West have allowed for the recognition of the cultural rights of the indigenous people as well as the migrants. Traditional practices such as fishing, hunting, and farming have been constitutionally accepted to form part of the cultural diversity of the West. The native languages being a part of that culture have also been recognised by the governments to contribute to the rich historical backgrounds of various countries. The recognition of the significant cultural rights of the people has enhanced unity and growth among the western nations.
The Multicultural policies across western countries have also improved representations and consultations of the local communities in the central government and also enhanced the recognition of traditional treaties. All the indigenous people, including the minority, have a say in the decision-making process of the government and are part of the ruling class. The traditional treaties have also not been scrapped, but they have been included in the administration of the government. New agreements have also been signed, but they are not in contravention of the earlier treaties.
The public funding for minority language across western countries has not been enhanced by multicultural policy developments. The national minorities such as Welsh and Scot in Britain or the Flemish in Belgium have always been viewed by their governments with a lot of suspicions. Then governments have always doubted the loyalty of the minority, and as a result, these groups have suffered. The funding for Schools, Universities and even the media that can enhance the well-being of the minority groups has totally been neglected. The lack of support of the minority groups has led to the team being left behind in the execution of national devotement.
Multiculturalism across western countries has failed enhanced legislative, constitutional and parliamentary recognition of a diverse multi-culture. Unlike Canada that constitutionally recognizes multicultural institutions and practices, most western countries do not make follow-ups to ensure the smooth integration of multiple cultural backgrounds. The countries only have multicultural existence in their countries as a result of the numerous cultural heritages that has been passed from generation to generation. The benefits of multiculturalism which include a richer cultural heritage have therefore failed to take root in these countries
Why Canada has failed to embrace Multicultural Policy Changes as other advanced Western Industrial Nations
In Canada, the composition of ethnic groups is a major inclusion of the Canadian community, necessitating the practice of Multiculturalism. As a result of the growing trend of immigration witnessed in Canada, there is a high number of Canadians whose origin is not British or French is about 50% of the total Canadian population. Due to the high influx of foreigners into Canada, earlier attempts to adopt assimilation failed as it was tough to change the way of life of the Canadians. Over time the policy on multiculturalism has, therefore, proved very efficient in handling the diverse cultures in Canada.
Unlike Germany and Netherlands, language acquisition by migrants who come into Canada does not pose a major challenge. Most newcomers do not face language proficiency problems as over 82% of them can easily identify with French and English languages which are Canadian two official languages. With English being an internationally recognised Lingua Franca and the English being widely spoken, it is easy for anyone entering Canada to readily identify with either of these languages and hence culturally fit into the new system.
The high rate of intermarriage among the minority groups has eliminated the threats posed by Multiculturalism. During a survey in Canada in 2001, it emerged that there existed so many couples who were from different backgrounds. The intermarriage mainly consisted of couples from Pilipino, Black Americas and Japanese cultures. This kind of hybrid which is rarely witnessed across other western cultures seeks to improve integration and enhance togetherness thereby unifying the diverse cultural backgrounds.
In relation to the attitudes of the host communities to the migrants, Canadians have always been supportive and welcoming. Unlike most western countries native Canadians are receptive of the new cultural integrations that are brought in by the new communities. In spite of Canadian constitution allowing for the intake of so many immigrants, opposition to this policy has failed to attract any political audience. It is normal for any democracy to have varied opinions on issues. As such, most educated Canadians tend to favour the idea of immigration more than the less educated. The general support for immigrants is, however, high in Canada and it is on this basis that Multicultural policies still continue to be widely accepted in Canada.
Unlike other Western nations, Canada does not face extreme radicalization as a result of Multicultural acceptance in the country. A recent survey in Canada among the Muslim culture revealed that despite the fact that the group holds self-identity of Islamic culture as a priority, they also value Canada as the country that offers them that freedom of self-recognition. The group is so proud of Canada, and that pride is echoed in the great unity and integration that they have with all the other Canadian communities. The Muslim communities in Canada, unlike other western nations, are less likely to embrace hostility to no-Muslims in their country.
Despite the fact that Canada is not entirely immune to the challenges of the adoption of multicultural policies, its success in implementing the policies has been viewed by scholars as a source of regional pride. Some of the major Canadian social and economic challenges have been solved through Multicultural policy legislations. The problem of social inclusion, immigrant integration and even religious tolerance are some of the biggest challenges that Canada faced before multicultural practices were adopted. In the process of adopting multicultural policies, other western countries have considerably failed. Countries such as Germany and Netherlands in their quest to embrace multiculturalism face a lot of cultural resistance. The major problems such as radicalization, resistance to cultural inclusion and lack of government support are the primary attribute to multicultural policy implementation across western nations. Canada has however maintained its traditional multicultural practices amidst the challenges of significant cultural adversity. The success has been attributed to the cultural acceptance of its people, government inclusion and the benefits of cultural diversity.

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