Molecular Genetics Analysis

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Question 1
The dogma idea provides the fundamental framework of how genetic facts flows from a DNA sequence to a protein product inside the cells. The different types of genes are known as alleles. Diploid organisms can have either two copies of the identical allele or one copy each of two distinct alleles. Organisms that have two copies of the same allele are known as homozygous at that locus whilst organisms that possess different alleles from both dad and mom are known as heterozygous. Genotype refers to the alleles an individual has at a locus. The genotypes are generally expressed using letters. The physical representation of the genotype is called an organism’s phenotype.
Question 2
Alleles are not created equal. Some alleles mask the presence others. Alleles that are masked by others are called recessive alleles. Recessive alleles are only expressed when an organism is homozygous at that locus. Alleles that are expressed regardless of the presence of other alleles are called dominant. The ACC2 protein (+) is responsible for ripening of the tomato. The red tomato on the left (++) is homozygous as well as the green tomato on the left (++). The tomato at the center contains alleles from both parents (_+) and hence is heterozygous. None of the two proteins ACC and ACC2 is dominant and that is why they are both expressed in the tomato at the middle.
Question 3
There are four introns in the ACC2 transcript
There are two extrons in the ACC2 transcript
The blue rectangles represent the extrons
Transcription occurs from left to right in the opposite direction as the arrow
Question 4
Direction of transcription

+
DNA

Transcription initial site MRNA Transcription Termination
Question 5
During the ripening process, a nucleotide change occurs in the tomato thus changing the receptors of the ACC2-D alleles. Moreover, the nucleotide change during tomato development alters the gene mutations of the tomatoes that results into extensive metabolic restructuration that affects of the ripening of the tomatoes. Hence, when the nucleotide changes in the alleles, a change occurs in the regulatory genes that propagate the rate at which ACC synthase is produced. As a result, more ethylene is produced hereby accelerating the ripening of the tomatoes before its full developed.
Question 6
Grocery stores have diverse ways of accelerating the ripening of green tomatoes. Naturally, diverse fruits like apples and bananas produce high amounts ethylene. Thus, different grocery stores may choose to store the tomatoes with other ripened fruits under optimal temperatures. Ripened fruits naturally produce ethylene and thus release the synthase to the unripe tomatoes accelerating their ripening. Alternatively, the grocery stores may spray the tomatoes with ethylene designed to increase the levels of ACC2 protein (+) thus increasing the production of C2H4 enzymes hereby ripening the tomatoes.

Question 7

Parent I Parent II
–_

Parent I Parent II
–_

GREEN RED RED RED

Parent I Parent II
–_

RED RED

Parent I Parent II
–_

GREEN GREEN

_x0001_

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