Medieval Europe and the churches

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Medieval Europe times were hard. Art and religion went hand in hand: after a few silicon churches were constructed to make sure that the orthodox communities reduced, the Great Schism followed instantly. This had a huge impact on Italy as it enabled the Normans to conquer the Italy-Greek to control all the religious activities and take over the monitoring of churches that were Constantinople. Buon fresco followed some stages to create their paintings, and these included scaffolding of wall spaces, preparation of the wall, then layering of the Capriccio. Once those were done, mapping of the drawing followed by intanaco plaster was used. Then the paint was applied to the wall while wet. Once it dried, the finishing touches followed to make the paint pop! Merchants and artisans have relations called guilds who controlled the practice of their craft in a given city or town. Their role was to implement the smooth flow of trade to their members who were self-employed.

Black Death is an epidemic that occurred between 1346 and 1353, killing around 75 to 200 million people across Eurasia. Its effects on art are that all the artistic drawings made back then portrayed the moment of terrible misfortunes and sarcasm.

The Byzantine art was introduced in Italy through the formation of the Byzantine Empire in 324 and continued the pan-Mediterranean traditions of the late antique Greco-Roman world. Its effect on Berlinghieri is that they turned to be leading painters who painted the Madonna and another important mosaic of Christ.

Humanism influenced art because most artists like Michelangelo were educated in humanist thoughts, and the paintings they did were based on their apprenticeships. It influenced what they were painting where they aimed at conveying different ideas.

Enrico Scrovegni commissioned fresco cycle; its effects on the development of art are that they introduced the arts with spiritual representation.

Giotto depicted spatial depth and bodily mass through lamination using light and shade.

The importance of Frederick II and Nicola Pisano for the revival of classicism in Italian sculpture was that they started sculpture training, which echoed with high religious styles.

The importance of the Virgin in Siena is that it leads to the salvation of the city from the Florentines in their war with Montaperti in 1260.

Ch. 15. Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Northern Europe

Book of Hours is the Christian book with prayers which were to be recited at the canonical hours of the day in the Middle Ages. The role of art in the books was to provide illustrations to enhance reading.

Chartreuse de Champmol was a monastery on the outlets of Dijon, France which was founded with a purpose of providing the dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy.

The intermingling of the secular and sacred in Flemish art was a way of creating a union which made the secular world to be sacred, and it was an attempt to condense a whole spatial reality.

An altarpiece is a work of art which is in performed the form of wood usually set above and behind the altar. They often provide decorations in churches, and they show which saint or sacred subject the altar was dedicated to.

Polyptych is an altarpiece painting with more than three leaves or panels which are joined by hinges or folds. It allowed various arrangements for different views or openings.

The Flemish technique of painting is done by organizing the composition and drawing it, then formulating the painting surface, from there transferring the drawing to the painting surface and lastly adding the imprimatur layer. Its advantage is that it blends well with surrounding paints and can be left open for longer hours.

The significance of portraiture was conveying images of nature in high-quality style. Jan van Eyck’s innovations were much influential, and Netherlander’s painters used his technique and styles in their early times.

The printmaking technique employed in this period was the use of oil painting, which started by cutting the wood panels which were then well assembled, and after they have joined well, the painting was done.

Ch. 16. The Renaissance in Quattrocento Italy

The proponents of humanism presumed that there is a mutual moral courtesy such as honesty, integrity among others, and these are verified according to their results.

The most valued artistic concepts in the Renaissance were paintings, architecture, sculpture, literature, and music.

The significance of Medici family in the 15th-century Italy was that it supported the arts that were developed, and assisted the growth and development of the city.

The benefit of being a court artist is that one had the chance to be a member of the ‘familia’ and had a direct personal contact with the prince.

Perspective is an art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface to assist in giving a proper impression of their width, depth and height, and position which will allow a view from different points.

The significance of the landscape in Donatello’s Saint George and the Dragon helped in the creation of the illusion of space and enhanced placing of figures through the shallowness of the cutting.

Gentile da Fabriano used the worldwide Gothic style. The art creates the style by bridging the gap between the Gothic painting and the new idiom that came up in Florence during the 15th century.

The sacrifice of Isaac was selected as the theme for the baptistery doors contest as the city fathers have been encouraging self-sacrifice in the face of the tense political situation.

The endowment of family chapels became dominant in the Renaissance because it was seen as a way of ensuring the well-being of souls of the family ancestors and members, and placed in adjacent to the churches. This is because they created a belief being close to the Renaissance.

The function of Or San Michele was to serve as a commercial site for the Florentine trade, and its significance was to show the pride of the trade and act as a reminder that great art often comes due to the competitive climate.

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