This is a term used to describe violence directed at members of a national, racial, ethnic, or religious group with the intent of destroying or eliminating the entire group.

While the situation in Darfur is complex, the co-factors relying on and underlying this humanitarian disaster/pandemic bear a striking resemblance to the ethnic, economic, and political motivations that have led to previous incidents of genocide and cleansing around the world.

In a war or civil conflict, there are no winners. Aside from being costly, every battle results in the loss of lives, damage of property, and humanity. As a matter of fact, most countries that experience war or conflicts in this 21st century are faced with economic and social destruction. There is lack of stability in the country, citizens are suffering and lives are being lost. Therefore, war can only be associated with more negative effects.

The term genocide came into popularity after the Second World War at the moment when the full extent of the atrocities put to mistakes by the Nzime regime against the Jews in Europe.

At the time of that conflict, it came into popularity. In 1948, the United Nations (UN) made or rather declared genocide an international crime. The term genocide was to be applied later to the demonic acts of violence committed at the time of conflicts taking place in the former Yugoslavia as well as in African country of Rwanda in the year, 1990s. Signatories of 120 nations were placed on an international treaty in 1998 to come up with the International Criminal Court (ICC), which possess jurisdiction to have crimes of genocide prosecuted.

The human rights record of Sudan still remains abysmal in 2016, with consistent attacks by the government forces on civilians in Darfur, Southern Kordofan together with Blue Nile States which is a repression of the civil society groups accompanied with independent media, widespread and prolonged arbitrary detentions of the activists, protesters as well as students.

The panel members have total trust on the cycle of violence found in eastern Darfur linking the first half of 2011 was propagated by ethnic cleansing interested in one particular group. The cycle of violence in the eastern Darfur triggered one of the most crucial displacements experienced in Darfur ever following the height of conflict of 2003 come 2005 with the known number of registered IDPs to be 700000 considering the report. The Party in power; National Congress Party (NCP) went through with a national dialogue process probably to pave way for a new constitution come government, reparation of the independence of South Sudan in the year, 2011 nevertheless the boycott by numerous opposition parties. The Sudanese Security Forces have reinforced sexual violence, intimidation accompanied by other forms of abuse to do away with female human rights defenders all over the country.

The International Community

The international community launched debates deliberately, sanctions against the government of Khartoum, a situation where the perpetrators of the war crimes should go through tests, the condition of Darfur has diminished further. In the early 2006, the government of Sudan launched attacks on the civilians, moreover residents. Organizations aid in citing demolishing security, mounting civilian casualties, the cease-fire in shambles and threat of famine.

The Current Situation

In the month of September 2006, UN proposed a resolution that was to ferry 20,000 peace-keepers internationally to Darfur. However, any form of deployment is contingent on the permission of Sudan government which of course hasn’t been forthcoming. The then declaring the condition a genocide, Bush administration maintains to be oddly passive. Current reports which genuinely shows that the US regard Sudan as a partner coinciding the terror war suggests that the administration weighs the intelligence information as of more value than millions of people’s lives who actually remain at risk in Darfur.

What Needs to Be Done

There are four basic steps that the people of Darfur need to take place to diminish their nightmare:

First Step – A need of an International protection force covering tens of thousands with a motive or rather mandate to protect civilians should be deployed to end the killing, despite the Sudan’s posturing. The small percentages of African Union observers with small notebooks are unable to stem the tide of the violence.

Second Step – A need regarding donor nations; the donor nations should increase or rather intensify the supply of humanitarian assistance to the region. Having in hand protection force, the assistance should be able to stretch and rescue the lives of those who deserve it utmost.

Third Step – A need proposing the government should permit displaced residents to return to their home-based residence. The protection force should remain deployed for safety on their return to their homes.


Considering geographical logistics Sudan still stands to be the greatest African’s country mapped on the north-eastern region of the continent. Precisely the western region of Darfur, the north Darfur states, west Darfur as well as South Darfur is rated with Texas size. Chad is bordered by West and North Darfur to the west while to the Central African Republic borders South Darfur.


Over the gone years rated twenty years ago, the spread of desert and drought has led to water and arable scarcity especially occupying Darfur. Out of this, herders have launched intensifying conflicts with the cultivators. Since Sudan attained her free democracy in the year 1950’s, it has registered several insurgencies incoherent to the central government.

The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and government placed signatories remarking a Peace Agreement to adjourn an aged war on the 9th of January, the year 2005. While talks upholding peace were ongoing in the South, a rebellion emerged in Darfur in the year 2003 when two hanging allied rebel groups, Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement launched attacks on the government military installations. At that moment, rebels in Darfur in need of an end to the economic and political marginalization region as well backed themselves with arms to render protection to their communities against a continuing campaign by the government-backed militias picked or rather recruited among Arab culture groups in Darfur as well as in Chad.

The Government of Sudanese together with Janjaweed are logically taking away lives of civilians and procedurally launching rape accompanied by other forms of sexual violence as tools of terror.

The prudential procedure for the Janjaweed to take away breath of all men in the village and have women raped. Millions of people have been dragged and displaced from their homes violently since government and Janjaweed approaches and hundreds of thousands’ lives have been taken. In the month of July 2004, the U.S. Congress bravely implicated a resolution declaring the condition in Darfur, genocide. In December the same year, the secretary of state, Powell together with President Bush communicated the term genocide putting focus on Darfur.


Arbitrary Detentions, III-Treatment, and Torture

The Sudan’s National Intelligence and Security Service commonly known for abusive massacre comprising of torture against perceived political opponents, detained activists, lawyers, students, doctors, community leaders together with those perceived to be crucial of the government. In due April, the security officials held students in captive together with activists in Khartoum, some for about two or more months without any fine, at the moment of violence crackdowns on protests at University campuses.

In the month of October, the officials in charge of security placed 14 doctors in captivity and summoned percentage scores more for having protested working conditions as well as violence against the medical professionals. Several detainees were subjected to beating accompanied other forms of ill-treatment. A report on female activists being sexually harassed by the top security officials while put on detention exemplifying a format Human Rights Watch has detailed of authorities making use of arbitrary detentions, sexual violence accompanied by public order codes to restrict or do away with female human rights activists.

Refugees and Migrants

The Commander of Sudan’s Rapid Support Forces, played a role in implicating wide-ranging abuses, communicated openly that his troop intercepted migrants on the border of Libyan, with alarming concerns that European Union gives a hand to East African states on migration, called Khartoum Process, and might remit resources to abusive forces. In due August, the government of Sudan had 48 Darfuris deported back to Sudan relating to the new agreement that was made between Sudan and Italy for the purposes of curbing migration, in the proceedings that seemed not to properly protect the rights of the asylum-seekers. In the month of December 2015, Jordanian authorities had 800 Sudanese deported back to Sudan while in July, Egypt had 36 Sudanese deported with no assertion of their claims to asylum. In the month of May 2016, the official of Sudanese had hundreds of Eritreans deported once again with no assess of their protection claims as documented under international law to likely abuses Eritrea as a nation.

Child Soldiers

In the month of September the Sudanese authorities had 21 children released allegedly associated with groups that are dangerously armed. Sudan placed signatories with UN covering an Action Plan to have children protected from recruitment as well as conflict mobilization.

Key International Actors

The High-Level Implementation Panel of the African Union for both Sudan and South Sudan progressed in mediating peace talks considering Southern Kordofan, Blue Nile as well as Darfur but little success accompanied it as a result. Sudan took an option of expelling the fourth senior UN official within two years when the authorities were reluctant to have the visa renewed for the top UN’s Office for reasons of Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the month of June. Sudan closed down an international aid agency in the month of December; the year 2015 and kicked out three more humanitarian officials early in 2016. From June, the year 2005, the ICC has carried on investigations following the crime scenes happening in Darfur. The ICC has granted arrest warrants covering five individuals, comprising of President Omar al-Bashir relating to the war crimes, crimes against humanity together with genocide. At the moment of writing, all become outstanding and Sudan has declined to combine forces with court relating any case. President Al-Bashir is still a fugitive only that his movement has been disconnected and restricted.

Legal Reform

The 2010 Act of the National Security and governing laws of the media, voluntary organizations as well as public order regime are specifically troublesome and indeed violates international human rights regulations to which Sudan as a nation is bound. The NISS possess wide powers to arrest and detain people for about four and a half months with no judicial review, months outweighing the international standard.

The amendments made in the constitution in January 2015 uplifted and empowered the NISS through designating it as a force that is regular with a motive or rather mandate to combat a broad range of social together with political threats. The authorities progressed with the application of Sharia, the Islamic law currently, sanctions that defy international prohibitions on inhuman, cruel and undressing punishment. The fines are probably applied disproportionately targeting women and girls precisely for crimes based on morality such as adultery or rather violations of the public order regime.


Lynch, Colum. “The Silence in Sudan: Why Did the United Nations Stop Reporting Atrocities in Darfur”. The Magazine, 2012.

PoKempner, Dinah. The Internet is Not the Enemy as Rights Move Online, Human Rights Standards Move with Them. Human Rights Watch, 2017.

Frey, Rebecca Joyce. Genocide and International Justice. New York: Facts on File, 2009.

Friedman, Mark. Genocide. London: Raintree, 2012.

Human Rights Watch. “Sudan Events of 2016.” Human Rights Watch, 2017.

Letta, Tayler. “Overreach How New Global Counterterrorism Measures Jeopardize Rights.” Human Rights Watch, 2017.

Levy, Janey. Genocide in Darfur. New York: Rosen Pub, 2009.

Word Without Genocide. “Darfur Genocide, 2003 – present.” Word Without Genocide, 2015.


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