Drug and substance abuse

Drug and Substance Misuse Among Youth

Drug and substance misuse is on the rise among many youngsters, particularly those in high school and in their teen years. The narcotics, more specifically carfentanil, have quickly spread among the youth. This medicine has had a negative impact on a number of countries, including the Republic of Canada. When taken in excess, its use and addiction cause more serious side effects such as hallucinations, committing crimes, and even death.

Definition of Carfentanil

Carfentanil has been defined by various chemists who have undertaken thorough research on it. A simple definition of the drug has been given as a derivative of fentanyl, which is a very powerful synthetic narcotic whose production comes from morphine. Research shows that carfentanil is 10,000 times more powerful than morphine. According to the study conducted on the effects of the drug, 25 individuals who had abused carfentanil mistaking it with heroine lost their lives instantly because they had taken an overdose of it (Váradi et al., 2015).

Effects of Carfentanil on High School Students in Alberta

The present study will examine the effects of carfentanil on the high school kids in Canada, specifically Alberta. It will also investigate the steps that various school boards in the region are taking to educate their students on the problems associated with the same. This will include the social, mental, and behavioral effects connected with the drug. The research will consider using Google Scholar and PubMed for literature published on the effects of drugs on high school students in Alberta. The direct and indirect effects posed by carfentanil on the youth will be investigated together with the issues that always lead them to the field of drug and substance abuse. This will help in the provision of the basics of what the researchers and everyone involved requires so that they are able to curb this swiftly intensifying menace.

Literature Review

While most of the studies have majored themselves on other types of drugs like heroin and cocaine, less has been so far investigated regarding carfentanil. Although it poses the greatest threat to the lives of individuals when abused, most of the researchers have decided to part ways with researching on it due to its less popularity among many people. However, the information from various studies regarding this drug and its effects has been well analyzed and documented and made readily available for future researchers.

The Relationship Between Carfentanil and Crime

Lofantoine & Yanofsky (2014) investigated the relationship between carfentanil and crime. The main aim of the study was to show how school children got themselves involved in criminal activities after using the drug. Indeed, most teenagers find crime as the only option to survive after dumping themselves into excessive use of drugs. The study involving 50 High School children who were undergoing probation showed that three quarters of them were arrested due to criminal activities which included theft and defilement. The study concluded that after getting involved in the crime activities, most of the kids dropped out of school due to different factors like pressure from their colleagues, which terminated their education.

Illegal Drug Trafficking and School-Going Children

Roman, Ahn-Reding & Simon (2007) studied the connection between illicit drug trafficking and school-going children. The study aimed at exposing some of the illegal actions that drug traffickers did involve the younger generation of the school-going children. Of the 120 school kids involved in the study, 96 of them had transported drugs once or more in their school life. The study showed that the drug dealers took advantage of the young and innocent children and used them in doing their business and this came with a reward of very little cash or sometimes nothing. Therefore, the study concluded that most of the children attempted to taste the drugs by themselves due to the curiosity they had. This led to them being affected in one or more ways including being addicted.

The Link Between Drugs and Capital

Moreover, More (2008) analyzed the link between drugs, especially carfentanil, and capital. The aim of the study was to show how children spent a lot of their hard-earned cash by their parents in purchasing drugs. The study involved 78 school-going kids who had been victims of the drugs. The results showed that almost all the kids had for once tricked their parents to give them cash with the excuse of being needed at school. However, they used the money to buy drugs where most of them went for carfentanil. Unlikely for them, some of the quick-thinking parents realized their tricks and immediately reported the case to the school administration where investigations were made and the drug victims found. The author used empirical method and proper experimentation to relay the message to the audience.

The Link Between Chemical Disaster Management and Public Health

Additionally, Scheepers (2015) investigated the link that existed between chemical disaster management and public health. The study intended to explain the effects that chemicals like carfentanil posed to the health of the people when used inappropriately. According to the study involving 26 individuals who were rescued from the carfentanil gas during a war, absolutely all of them were still experiencing some effects of the chemical. The study showed that an overdose of the carfentanil chemical got into the blood of the victims which killed many of them, paralyzed some, and exposed a few to some very severe side effects including breathing problems. However, according to the study, the 26 individuals survived because they were quickly injected with an antidote of the drug.

The Association Between Abused Drugs and Antagonist Nalaxone

Chhabra & Aks (2017) also looked at the association between the abused drugs and antagonist nalaxone. This study, which involved a group of trained specialists to deal with drug victims, aimed to expose how the various drugs responded to the antidote which neutralized them. According to the specialists, the cocaine and heroin victims responded much faster to the antagonist nalaxone compared to the carfentanil ones, which took a long time to recover. This study concluded that carfentanil contained very toxic substances compared to its counterparts and was therefore the most dangerous.

The Effects of Drugs on the Stability of Families

To add to that, Seelye (2015) discussed the alliance between drugs and stability of families. The study sought to highlight the effects that the usage of drugs posed to most families. 46 families which had been victims of drug abuse were involved in the study to see how they coped up with their lives. The results revealed that families, especially the ones that were affected by the abuse heroin lived very unstable and complicated lives. This had led to most marriages being broken hence leaving children to loiter in the streets where they were again exposed to these drugs. The study therefore concluded that most families had to be counseled to help them avoid much drug-related complications.

Effects of Drugs on the Temperature of Drug Addicts

Furthermore, Rovai et al., (2017) studied the connection between drugs and the temperature of the patients who were drug addicts. The main aim of the study was to expose the effects that drugs like heroin, alcohol, and carfentanil had on the temperature of the patients. The study, which engaged 32 patients identified to be drug addicts, found that none of their body temperatures remained stable when they were measured severally. This showed that excessive use of the drugs altered their body organs that regulated their temperatures, hence creating many complications.

Health Effects of Drug Abuse

Besides, Moeller et al., (2015) analyzed the link between drug abuse and the health of individuals. The study targeted at showing the health effects that opioids like carfentanil posed on the health of the people. The study involved 38 victims of drug abuse and more specifically, carfentanil. The results revealed that most of the victims were not living healthy lives. Due to the excessive usage of drugs, most of them had developed major health issues, which included dangerous diseases like heart failure. However, most of the strong addicts had died due to the adverse effects that the toxic drugs posed to their lives.

The Connection Between Abused Drugs and Pharmaceutical Drugs

Likewise, Lapeyre-Mestre & Dupui (2015) investigated the connection between the abused drugs and the pharmaceutical ones. The aim of the study was to identify the effects that the abuse of drugs caused to other drugs prescribed to patients in the hospitals. The study, which engaged 26 patients who were drug users, showed that most of their bodies were resistant to the drugs they were prescribed by doctors. They took them but no changes occurred, and instead of their illnesses diminishing, they just persisted and even became severe in others. The study concluded that the toxins had accumulated in the blood of the victims, preventing the pharmaceutical drugs from taking effect in their bodies.

The Effects of Carfentanil on Student Performance

In a systematic review by Váradi et al. (2015), the relationship between carfentanil and student performance in schools in Alberta was analyzed. The study aimed at finding out the effects of carfentanil on students' performance so that the information could be used to recommend to the board and other stakeholders. According to the study, carfentanil affects the performance and the concentration span of students, hence the majority of the victims always failed to study and understand their teachers. The study was analogous to the one by Cole & Nelson (2017) who added that the students did not have time to read their books since they got addicted to the drug.

Effects of Carfentanil on the Human Brain

Also, Cruciani & Knotkova (2014) studied the relationship between carfentanil and the human brain. The study aimed at showing the effect that intoxicating the body with less and more carfentanil had on the brain of the individual. According to the study conducted on 53 individuals, a quarter of them who abused the drug in a small dosage also had fewer effects on their brain like hallucinations and impatience among many more. On the other hand, those that had abused the drug in excess had severe effects which severely damaged their brain. Four of the individuals had gone mad while 2 of them had died because the toxins had severely damaged their brains.

The Correlation Between Drugs and Truancy

Finally, in systematic reviews by Pressman et al. (2017) and Gagliardo (2016), the relationship between drugs and students' school attendance was studied. The aim was to study the correlation between drugs and truancy. The results indicated that the majority of students who abused carfentanil were always away from school and they registered a high rate of truancy.

Analysis of the Findings and Recommendations

Owing to the use of carfentanil by High School students in Alberta, a myriad of effects were registered as indicated by the articles. Each of the authors has presented the effects of carfentanil that is social, economic, emotional, physical, and psychological. The health of the victims has deteriorated drastically, for instance, the damage caused to the brain, body organs, blood tissues, and other mental diseases. The students also showed changes in social life in that they became anti-social yet they joined bad company that excessively used carfentanil. This affected their performance since they could hardly concentrate in class and this was also attributed to high cases of truancy.

However, to curb the problem of carfentanil in Alberta, the boards have employed a number of mechanisms in bid to help the students. The use of extensive counseling programs that entail the use of peer-to-peer groups, drug group monitors, mentors, and frequent school programs on the effects of drugs. This has been effectively integrated into the curriculum so that the students are sensitized on the effects of carfentanil and drugs in general. In addition to that, parents and the government have developed stern warnings on the use of drugs with heavy punishment to accompany it. This has reduced the presence and circulation of the drug to high school students (Yin, Burns, & Wiley, 2015).


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Cole, J. B., & Nelson, L. S. (2017). Controversies and carfentanil: we have much to learn about the present state of opioid poisoning. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

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Seelye, K. Q. (2015). In heroin crisis, white families seek gentler war on drugs. The New York Times, 30

Pressman, A. J., Peterlin, B. L., Tompkins, D. A., Salas, R. E., Buenaver, L. F., Haythornthwaite, J. A., & Campbell, C. M. (2017). Pain catastrophizing may moderate the association between pain and secondary hyperalgesia. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 22(1).

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Váradi, A., Palmer, T. C., Haselton, N., Afonin, D., Subrath, J. J., Le Rouzic, V., & Majumdar, S. (2015). Synthesis of carfentanil amide opioids using the ugi multicomponent reaction. ACS chemical neuroscience, 6(9), 1570.

Yin, S., Burns, M., & Wiley, J. (2015). Opioid intoxication in children and adolescents.

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