Question 1: What clinical results are associated with M.K.’s chronic bronchitis?
M.K is suffering from smoking-induced chronic bronchitis, based on his symptoms and case report. This is illustrated by her historical account of cigarette smoking (Gipson, 2016). Chronic bronchitis is most often caused by cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis causes the cells to release various cytokines, which are small gesticulating proteins that stiffen the airway linings and cause the airways to swell. This causes the cells to release a variety of tiny gesticulating cytokines. Secondary infections that cause increased urination during the night may also cause urinary tract infections. The tenacious airway irritation caused by cigarette smoking induces a falling consequence which results in specific cells producing more sputum than usual (Suzuki et al.,2014).
The treatment can be started by abandoning smoking, appropriate psychotherapy and rehabilitation can be provided to leave smoking, evade dirt places as well as away from air contamination (Suzuki et al.,2014). Taking mild cough syrup oxygen remedy can be used to treat a cough caused by smoldering. The syrup is taken to clear air passage. For secondary infection, antibiotics can be taken manage the condition.
Question 2: type of heart failure M.K is suspected with
Serious smoking induced bronchitis cause failure of the heart to the lower right chamber of the heart or the ventricle. This condition is termed as right-sided heart failure. Failure of the right-hand side of the heart causes liquid like mucus to build-up within the body, such as in belly regions and legs. Heart failure primarily is seen owing to blocking of bronchitis by slime making it challenging to take breaths resulting in high blood pressure also leads to failure of the heart.
Question 3: stage of hypertension is M. K. experiencing
Hypertension is detected when systolic pressure is 140mmHg when diastolic pressure is 90mmHg. Individuals with kidney disease or diabetes, hypertension is recognized when the pressure of the blood is 130/80mmHg. The higher the pressure of the blood, the higher the risk of developing blood-related hitches such as kidney failure, stroke, heart failure and heart illness (Milanese et al.,2014). The initial phase of hypertension is termed phase 1 hypertension. The systolic pressure is 149mmHg. The next hypertension stage, phase 2 hypertension, is identified when systolic pressure is 160mmHg or when diastolic pressure is 100mmHg or higher as well as from M.K BP worth of 158mmHg
History of smoking began at twenty-years-old of age. By sixty years, M.K. would have inhaled the smolder from nearly 291,000 cigarettes also would bear a considerable threat for chronic disruptive pulmonary illness, and smoldering is universal from an earlier age that exposes several individuals to diseases. Proper cognizance should be commenced against cigarette smoking along with its ill effect (Milanese et al.,2014)
Question 4: Other Conditions M.K is at risk for
Cholesterol is a form of fat also needed lipids are stored as cholesterols. Cholesterol aids in making the outer membranes of the body cell stale. Extraordinary entire saturated fat can increase probabilities of heart failure. Fatty acid blocks arteries in atherosclerosis process. Constricted arteries in the heat can then suddenly develop a blood clot, causing heart attacks.
Question 5 interpretation of the laboratory value
The typical range for level for hemoglobin A1c is less than six-percent HbA1c. The level is reflective of blood glucose level for the last 6-8 weeks also do not daily reflect ups and downs of blood glucose (Gipson, 2016). High HbA1 level indicates inferior control of diabetes than level in the standard range along with any aberration from normal HbAc. This shows that level of glucose in the body is unusual and might lead to failure of the heart because of the augmented glucose carrying capability of blood levels.
Gipson, I. K. (2016). Goblet cells of the conjunctiva: A review of recent findings. Progress in retinal and eye research, 54, 49-63.
Milanese, M., Di Marco, F., Corsico, A. G., Rolla, G., Sposato, B., Chieco-Bianchi, F& ELSA Study Group. (2014). Asthma control in elderly asthmatics. An Italian observational study. Respiratory medicine, 108(8), 1091-1099.
Suzuki, M., Makita, H., Ito, Y. M., Nagai, K., Konno, S., & Nishimura, M. (2014). Clinical features and determinants of COPD exacerbation in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. European Respiratory Journal, 43(5), 1289-1297.