Civilization history

The Concept of Civilization

The era of human development where people are viewed as more sophisticated and advanced is known as civilization. Additionally, it is described as the method by which a particular society advances to a higher degree of social status. The advancement that people and their societies have made from prehistoric to contemporary times is known as civilization. Many practices and items that were used in earlier times are no longer used or practiced because of civilization. Political, social, and economic growth that has been visible for some time can be used to analyze world civilization. The world civilization started from western nations who were the first to be civilized. It is linked to the Roman empires as well as Medieval Western Christian movement that emerged from the middle Ages to the point of transformations such as reformation, the industrial revolution, scientific evolution as well as periods of enlightenment. This paper will discuss civilization in the world by looking at various stages and development steps that have been made in the world to date.

The Beginning of Civilization

To begin, civilization can be said to have started in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Tracing back the beginning of civilization, Mesopotamia is said to have experienced first civilization where a place called Sumer first experienced complex civilization in 4th millennium BCE. The first form of writing can also be traced back to these places. Those who first interacted with civilization needed water for their animals and themselves to drink, and thus they moved close to a river. A lot of discovery was made after this such as the invention of equipment that can be used to draw water from the river or the boreholes. These were the beginning of the creation of the complex society that is in the world currently. However modern civilization started in western countries. The modern day slavery can be discussed under the origin of slavery, enlightenment in Europe as well as colonization.

Ancient Civilization and Agricultural Practices

Ancient civilization was majorly in agricultural practices. This led to the development of slave trade as there were more people needed to work in plantations. Transatlantic slave trade was one of the biggest sources of slave in the ancient civilization. Most of the slaves were imported from Africa to work in Middle East nations that were practicing agriculture at that time. Later there came the age of enlightenment in Europe it is the period that brought scientific reasoning in the world. The age of enlightenment brought more advanced reasoning that was not there during the time of ancient civilization. Agriculture was now being practiced using sophisticated tools. Trade was also enhanced and industries were coming up.

The Industrial Revolution and Spread of Civilization

The industrial revolution is one of the major factors that contributed to civilization in the world. With industries and machines being set up, the movement became very easy. The western nations that were already advanced in such technology started exploring the world to look for opportunities in other places away from their home countries. The machines increased interactions and exchange of ideas in various places that were visited by Europeans.

Western Colonization and the Spread of Civilization

Western countries through the process of looking for raw materials in the world helped spread civilization to the rest of the world through interaction. The raw materials needed for the industries as well as the market for produced goods are some of the issues that brought political, social as well as economic advancement through civilization. For their industries to secure markets in the world, they were also to bring benefits to these places. Such benefits included schools and the spread of Christianity.

The Impact of Colonization on Africa

Later, colonization started as a result of competition for the market. Western nations started exploring the world and making territories wherever they go so s to secure their source of raw materials and market as well. In the process, their lifestyle was copied by the locals. They also brought western education to the local people and forcing them with Christianity as well as school. The colonization of Africa can be said to have brought civilization to them. Before colonization, Africa was a land of farmers with no clothes but wore animals' skins. There was no education and the religious practices were traditional based on what the society thinks was powerful such as moon, mountains, sun among others. However, when western nation invaded Africa, they first came for the gospel, teaching them the new way to worship God. Later they introduced schools where people were taught basic skills as well as western culture and way of life that was different from that of Africans. In the process, they took control of their resources. They would also take others to work for them in their firms. Meanwhile, Africans were being civilized in the process. Later they started fighting for equal rights with the whites which brought complex political institutions in the world. The fight for freedom brought democracy as people were now enlightened and knew their rights. There was a need for proper administration in the society, and thus the political institutions also changed from traditional ones to modern ones that allowed democracy in most parts of the world. The movement of modern-day civilization came as a result of these aggressive actions of western countries in search of how their industries can survive through the market and raw materials.


Therefore civilization in the world can be said to have been enhanced by the age of enlightenment that occurred in Europe. It later caused a lot of reasoning that brought scientific revolution as well as industrial revolution. As the world continued to advance and people fighting for freedom from colonization, slave trade became awkward. Even though machines helped reduce slavery, the most important one was the fight for freedom that most nations wanted from the western countries.

The Continuing Evolution of Civilization

In summary, world civilization was a process that started in the Middle East then jumped to Europe that enhanced it. The western nations spread their culture and education that later became one of the major ways to civilize the rest of the world. In the modern days, there are still more advances in human societies as the introduction of new technology has brought. The social media and the internet have made the world a global village and have greatly enhanced the spread of ideas through interaction with those who are beyond our borders.


Baker, William. "William Wilberforce on the idea of Negro inferiority." Journal of the History of Ideas 31, no. 3 (1970): 433-440.

Brown, Stuart, ed. British Philosophy and the Age of Enlightenment: Routledge History of Philosophy. Vol. 5. Routledge, 2012.

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