Biological Factors in Emotion, Cognitive Factors in Emotion

Emotion is a complicated psychophysiological experience that is influenced by our interactions with our surroundings. Positive and negative emotions are both possible. There is also a link between emotions and objects, experiences, social feelings, and self-appraisal sensations. Some emotions, such as love, joy, rage, and fear, are intrinsic. Personal experiences, on the other hand, give birth to emotions such as pride, neglect, pity, and dread. Various theorists, like James-Lange, Cannon-Bard and Schachter, and Singer, seek to explain the origin and character of emotions.  Firstly, the James-Large theory asserts that encounter with different events enables them to undergo coding in the nervous system. The registered events, in turn, create awareness of our psychological reactions. Examples of these responses include increased heartbeat, trembling and stomach upset. Hence, these physical reactions trigger emotional reactions such as anger, fear, and sadness. Similarly, an encounter with a bear creates physical responses which in turn generate the emotion of fear. Secondly, the Cannon-Bard theory argues that feeling feelings and experiences co-occur in an individual. Therefore, an encounter with a bear increases the heart rate and makes one tremble. Thus, the physical reaction and the emotion of fear coincide.

Finally, Schachter-Singer’s Two-Factor theory stresses on physiological arousal as a significant cause of emotions. Besides, it disputes the fact that arousals alone cannot solicit all emotional responses. Therefore, it acknowledges the psychological aspect of emotional reactions. According to this theory, the bear is an external stimulus which causes physiological arousal. Cognitive labeling of the arousal with fear makes one experience the conscious emotion of fear immediately after seeing the bear.

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