Benefits of Viruses in the Human Brain

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Retroviruses were integrated in human DNA millions of years ago. An investigation by Lund University in Sweden was instrumental to the development of this field through findings on the impact of retroviruses on the expression of genes. Johan Jacobson and his colleagues on the findings discovered that retroviruses impacted the growth of human brain and also in other neurological illnesses. Junk-DNA is the idea these scientists use in representing the retroviruses attached to the DNA. The genes were in control of protein production in the body. The scientist discovered that the genome is capable of shaping the production proteins. They have found out that retroviruses affected the development of human brain and also in several neurological illnesses. Junk-DNA is a concept that these scientists have used to refer to retroviruses attached to the DNA. The genes have had control in the production of proteins in the body. The researchers found out that this genome are able to impact the production of proteins. They have determined that retroviruses have established in the genome of human beings where they serve as the point where TRIM 28 protein are hosted. The protein is able to prevent viruses together with the standard gene close to them allowing endogenous retroviruses to affect the expression of genes. Restriction mechanism differs from one person to the other since the retroviruses may end up in different points in the genome.

Jacobson compared the regulatory role of ERV in neurons in mice and human beings. The team determined that the retroviruses are built into the DNA of human beings and not in other species apart from gorillas and chimpanzees. These species seem to have incorporated into their genome approximately 35 to 45 years ago during the revolution of primates.

Research has been mainly on the overall development of brains in zebra fish, fruit fly and mouse. Jacobson concluded that when the retroviruses affect the development of brain in these species and human beings have their own set of ERV then the brain of human beings are effected by ERV.

Article 2: Scientists engineer animals with ancient genes to test causes of evolution

Scientist in the University of Chicago through their research created genetically modified animals which they have used to test for evolutionary effects that occurred in the past animal biology. The main goal of studying evolution has been to identify the genes that have made species adapt new environments. These goals have not been achieved by many researchers since there are no ways through which the effects of ancient genes on animal biology can be determined. The problem was solved in this study by University of Chicago researchers through engineering of transgenic animals and statistical reconstruction of ancient gene sequence. Until currently, there are several studies that have been made to analyze gene sequence to identify patterns that shows that a gene can change so fast during the process of evolution. The evidences obtained from these studies are only circumstantial since these genes can evolve quickly as a result of several reasons.

Joe Thorntone in his determination of the effect of gene evolution on adaptations he synthesized sequences of the genes and later experimentally studied them in the laboratory. The study revealed major understandings into the instruments through which biochemical purposes evolve. It was determined that joining inherited gene reconstruction with technological transgenic animals could enable the researchers study the changes that happened in the past and affected the whole animals. To prove this, the researchers used the fruit fly which is one of the most studied animals. They incorporated technology into the study and they were able to prove their hypothesis on evolution where the fruit flies were able to adapt to the alcohol level they used in the experiment.

Article 3: How to be winner in the game of evolution

Over the past decades, human have believed on the description given by biologists that there are more than 1.5 million animal species. The number has only been estimation as there are more species to be discovered. In this article a group of biologists from University of Arizona were determined to explain why there is difference in the number of species and how this contributes to their way of life and body form. Biologists in their studies have been in the process of determining the patterns underlying the diversities that these species hold. It is believed that there are almost 30 phyla which have differences in the many species that they contain. The biologists have tried to determine the causes of a phylum do diversify and end up into many species. The main problem that was to get determined is whether the basic biology of the phyla being related to the other species.

To prove this, the researchers from Arizona assembled a database that constituted eighteen traits and examined the relationship of each trait to the species. The traits were tested independently and made more analysis on those species that had in making the analysis, there was no consideration of fossil records since it is not a true reflection of the past biodiversity and it does not reveals some traits such as the parasitic lifestyle. From their study, they also determined that extinction through the activities of man may cause a heavy toll on biodiversity due to the effects these activities have on secondary extinction. When specie goes extinct, the other species that it was associated to it for shelter of for food are likely to go extinct.

Works cited

“How To Be Winner In The Game Of Evolution: New Study Reveals Key Traits Associated With High Species Diversity”. ScienceDaily. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Jan. 2017.

“Scientists Engineer Animals With Ancient Genes To Test Causes Of Evolution”. ScienceDaily. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Jan. 2017.

“Viruses In Genome Important For Our Brain”. ScienceDaily. N.p., 2017. Web. 23 Jan. 2017.

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