Anthropology: The discovery of ancient relics

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Irrespective of various theories and contentions regarding human history, everyone is anxious to comprehend what source the human race can be traced to. Numerous discoveries by archaeologists have uncovered a number of ancient relics and have assisted to develop the evolution theory that identifies how the modern man came to exist. The descriptions of various skulls below show various stages of human evolution as discovered by different archeologists.
The skull has jaws and teeth that verifies those of an ape, with canines and molars that are respectively large. The thickness of the tooth enamel looks like the intermediate one that lies those of the chimpanzees and Australopithecus. However, the canines are smaller and less projecting, an indication that these apes did not take part in aggressive activities and were like normal omnivorous. The shape of the skull suggests that it rests on the spinal column. This indicates the apes were bipedal, and just slightly walked in a different manner than humans. The shorter cranial base show that the head balanced on the spine. Moreover, the apes had smaller faces than chimpanzees, and the ridge on top of the eye socket does not resemble the chimpanzees’.
Australopithecus afarensis (Skull no. 21)
The skull indicates jaws and teeth that are intermediate between apes and humans. They have longer and pointed canine teeth that are intermediate between humans and apes. However, from the skull, a number of cranial features like the projecting face, low and slopping forehead, and the prominent brow ridges that is on top of the eyes show a great resemblance to apes.
Australopithecus africanus (Skull no. 33)
The skull of this species show a number of human-like features when compared with the earlier species. These include shall brow ridge and a forehead area that is slightly arched but not flat. The fact that the spinal cord emerges from the central part of the skull’s base shows similarity to all human ancestors. The teeth as well as the jaws are intermediate between those of the apes and humans. The incisor and the canine are shorted and smaller than those of the Australopithecus afarensis. They also have large molar and premolar teeth, and also a rare gap between canines and teeth that follow.
Australopithecus robustus (boisei) (Skull no. 1, 10)
This species had ape-like cranial features with prominent brow ridge and flat forehead. The face is broad and they had flaring cheekbones. The fact that the spinal cord passed through the skull’s center is an indication that the species walked upright. They also had extremely large molar and premolar teeth, and small canines and incisors.
Homo habilis (Skull no. 5, 14)
The full and more rounded brain case show that this species’ brains had expanded. The face had an arched and small brow ridge that was shorted and smaller than earlier ancestors. The facial projection was smaller, and the hole from the spinal cord that passed at the center of the base of the skull showed that the species walked on two legs. They had smaller jaws with teeth arranged in a round manner resembling those of modern humans.
Homo erectus (Skull no. 11, 112, 213)
The species has a broad and flat nose, large face, massive brow ridge, and a low and sloping forehead. The skull is long and broad, and has sharp angles within the rear, which do not resemble the curves that exist in the modern human’s skull. The skull also had thick bones and a small central ridge along the top. They also had thick and large jaws that do not have a pointed chin, and the roots of the molar teeth were large but decreased to resemble those of modern human.
Homo neanderthalensis (Skull no. 4, 101)
The species had a rounded brain case and a long and low skull shape. The bulge at the back of the skull and the depression were meant for the attachment of muscles of the neck. The forehead was flat and receding, and below was the rounded brow ridge. They had a broad and large nose, and also large and rounded eye sockets. Their teeth were larger than those of the modern man.
Homo floresiensis (Skull no. 31)
This species had a cranial shape that was long and low. The shape resembles that of Homo erectus more than that of the Homo sapiens. The forehead was small and receding, they had flat face, thick skull bones, and narrow nose. Moreover the brow ridges exist above each eye but are not continuous. They also have a smaller post canine as well as canine teeth, and a parabolic dental arcade.
Archaic Homo sapien (Skull no. 22, 3)
This species closely resemble the modern man and thus the features are close to those of the Homo sapiens. Some district features are the presence of a broad face that has limited projections, shovel-shaped incisors, an upward orientation of their cheek bones, and abroad nose with flattened nasal bones.
Homo sapien (Skull no. 8)
The skulls of Homo sapiens have a high brain case and a short base. They have the broadest skull at the top and the fullest braincase. The rounded back of the skull shows presence of reduced neck muscles, and the face is small and has a projecting nose bone. The forehead is tall, brow ridge limited and eye sockets are square. The jaws are short and results to a vertical face. The teeth are also smaller than those of other species, especially the canines and the incisors.

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