Ancient America Before 1492

The Ancient History and Archives of Archaeology

The ancient history and archives of archaeology are the subject of chapter one. From Asia, the first human being to start up in the Northern Hemisphere moved. Beringia was a barrier that was exposed due to glaciation between Alaska in the US and Siberia in Asia, resulting from declining sea levels. It thus paved the way for the relocation of the people of Siberia to the US. Clovis points were used by Paleo-Indians in the North and Central US to hunt and prompted the disappearance of certain species. The original people who focused on the hunting habits of large animals such as bison and mammoths were the Paleo-Indians. Indeed, the nomadic way of life was centered on hunting wild animals coupled with the act of gathering wild food. Also the ancient history “forced Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi” (Roark 12). Archaic Indians were the members of wild gathering and hunting cultures who descended from the Paleo-Indians. Chiefdoms used political hierarchies, and the cultivation of corn started in Central and South America. There was also the development of Adena and Mogollon culture along with other many cultures.

Europeans Encounter the New World

Black Death as described in this chapter proved to be devastating as it resulted in the death of many Europeans. It left a legacy of increased food and resources to people that survived the ordeal. Tainos were the Indians that inhabited San Salvador and the numerous Caribbean islands. They are also documented to be the first people to enter Columbus after a landfall in the new world. The Treaty of Tordesillas was negotiated in 1494 and defined the land claims. Notably, the treaty managed to draw an imaginary line west of the Canary Islands and the land that was discovered belonged to the Spain community. The Columbian exchange was a fundamental aspect of the transatlantic goods exchange. The Spanish was also obsessed with exploring and conquering the new world with the use of soldiers. The Incan empire stretched to the western coast of South America and an aspect of the new world. The Indians used the Acoma Pueblo revolt to protest against the Spanish who were threatening in taking their territories. According to Roark “The post-World War II foreign policy strategy” and the Encomienda were the systems that governed the New Spain (Roark 45). Creoles were the children that were born to the Spanish parents during the new world. The protestant reformation began in 1517 and critiques arose on the Catholic Church.

The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century

The chapter starts with the capture of John Smith by the Algonquian. Powhatan was the Indian Algonquian chief, and his daughter was called Pocahontas. The frustrations of the Jamestown including disease and starvation proved to be major threats in the region. The supply of food dwindled, and the town's food problems were solved by the people of Powhatan. The aspect of prejudices and slavery is indicated to have occurred on Jamestown. Roark writes that “As the alliance movement grew, the farmer groups consolidated into two regional alliances” (Roark 67). John Smith became the first Indian to learn the Powhatan language. The emergence of slave trade supplemented the reduction of the Indian workers. The African were employed by the barbarians and worked on the plantations.

The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century

Roger Williams rejected the opportunity of working as a minister in Winthrop Boston Church. As a result, he ended up forming his colony of Rhode Island. In 1517, a Protestant revolution began in Germany, and the English Reformation started in 1534 by Henry VII who hailed from the England church. Henry VII also passed the act of supremacy and became the king of the England church. After Henry VII’s death, many different leaders emerged from the Protestant and the Catholic churches. Mary I became the ruler and after her death Elizabeth I became the queen and “allowed the unconverted children of the visible saints to become halfway members of the church” (Roark 69). Elizabeth I aimed at having a church which would strengthen the empire and address the identity of Protestantism as a symbol of national unity. Furthermore, “Catholic missionaries labored earnestly to convert Indians” (Roark 66). King James created the King James Bible, and Elizabeth persecuted the Puritan reformers. The history of New York and religion led to the creation of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Growing population and expanding economy

Grandy King George was one of the primary slave traders who came from the interior of Africa. Due to slavery, there was an increase in population in the US in the 18th century. Immigration processes also led to population growth and natural growth through the increase birth rate. Notably, the expanding economy “became a place of promise for the poor” (Roark 72). Immigration characterized the British colonies, and it caused the economy to expand. The slaves provided cheap labor, and the poverty rates were remarkably low. The chapter also details the rise of the American Revolution and asserts that slavery was a fundamental characteristic of the South Americans.

The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis

Chapter six explains the seven-year war which was caused by the conflicts that existed between the French, Virginia, Indians, and Pennsylvania over the territorial lands of Ohio. Also, the fur trade proved to be lucrative for people who carried out in Ohio. In the Indian and French War, George Washington and Robert Dinwiddie were the primary personalities. Roark states that “both parties, Americans of all religions and all colors, from every section of this country, to join in that cause” (Roark 80). Apart from the war, the chapter details that the stamp act threatened America and implied it as being a British subject. There were symbols of British oppression arrangements that called for boycotts and the daughters of liberty. The end of the Townshend duties after the massacre in Boston resulted in trade boom.

The War for America

The majority of the delegates in the second continental congress called for independence. George Washington was appointed and signified New England, and he later on became the commander of the forces. In Thomas Jefferson’s committee, there was the drafting of the declaration of independence. Through financial incentives, the continental army received soldiers to the enlisted. “Congress then drew up a declaration on the causes and necessity of taking up arms” (Roark 90). The continental army was undermanned and proved to be inexperienced. The primary objective of the British government in the colonial control was to destroy and conquer the US. “Most of the delegates were not yet prepared to break with Britain” (Roark 97). The evacuation of the colonies by the British took two years.

Building a Republic

Chapter eight of the book details the constitutional basis for the US national government. The chapter makes a definition of the articles of confederation and the political power in the hands of the state. In 1775, the second continental congress started to meet, and in 1777, the articles of Confederate were sent to the state. In 1776, Virginia State adopted the first bill of rights, and in 1781, the articles of Confederate were ratified. The bill of rights listed the individual liberties that the state government could not have violated. These include “general rights to life, liberty, and property, and specific rights to freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and trial by jury” (Roark 102). Shay's Rebellion protested against taxes in Massachusetts and led to the call for a constitutional convention. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix was the agreement between the US and the Irish Confederacy. “At the heart of the Alliance movement stood a series of farmers' cooperatives that sought to negotiate” (Roark 109). The case of the Northwest Ordinance is also mentioned, and the land act of 1787 set forth the process under which the territories became states.

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